1. p. 7 The field is known to the French as 'mimologique' and to most English-speaking researchers as 'sound symbolism' or 'phonetic symbolism'. Wescott talks of 'phonosemics'. The syntacticians speak more generally of 'linguistic iconism', and the Africans talk of 'ideophones' without mentioning any of the above terms associated with the field as a whole. In this text, I will refer to the field as 'phonosemantics', following Stanislav Voronin's usage as a sub-field of linguistic iconism -- phonologic as opposed to syntactic iconism. As Jakobson points out, the term 'sound symbolism' is really concerned with C.S. Peirce's 'icon' rather than his 'symbol', and that is why I too find the term 'sound symbolism' confusing.

2. p.32 Those not discussed at greater length in this introduction include J. Reinius (German and English, 1908), Edward Sapir (Wishram, 1911), Diedrich Westermann (Ewe, 1930), Charleton Maxwell (Malay, 1932), Stanley Newman (Bella Coola, 1933), G. Allport (Hungarian, 1935), Otto Dempwolff (Austronesian, 1938), F. I. Deed (Swahili, 1939), Margarete Eberhardt (the deaf, 1940), J. Orr (English, 1944), Gladys Reichard (Couer d'Alene, 1945), Jan Gonda (Indonesian, 1948), E. M. Uhlenbeck (Javanese, 1950), Karl Hoffmann (Old Indian, 1952), Hans Marchand (Turkish, 1952), Edward Dimock (Bengali, 1957), M. Durand (Vietnamese, 1961), R. Davis (Tanganyikan languages, 1961), Murray Miron (cross-linguistic, 1962), Fred Householder (Azerbadjani, 1962), Samuel Elmo Martin (Korean, 1962), Nils Thun (English, 1963), G. Atzet and H.B. Gerard (Navajo, 1965), Denzel Carr (Malay, 1966), David Heise (English, 1966), Bob Blust (Austronesian, 1969), M.B. Emeneau (Indian languages, 1969), S. Voronin (English, 1969), M. Tsien-Lee (Chinese, 1969), Henri Frei (Japanese, 1970), Mary Haas (Northwestern California, 1970), G. H. Matthews (Proto-Siouxan, 1970), R. Ultan (Konkow, 1971), Robert Ostwalt (Pomo, 1971), Margaret Langdon (Yuman, 1971), Marshall Durbin (Mayan, 1973), V. V. Levitskij (Ukrainian, 1973), John Wolff (Austronesian, 1974), A. P. Zhuravlev (Russian, 1974), R. D. Tarte (Czech, 1974), Gérard Diffloth (Semai, 1976), Kong-On Kim (Korean, 1977), Asher Koriat and I. Levy (Hindi and Japanese, 1977), S. Greenberg and J. D. Sapir (Kujamutay, 1978), Richard Rhodes (Ojibwa, 1980), Brent Berlin and J O'Neill (Jivaroan, 1981), Ira Schloss (English, 1981), Marianne Mithun (English, 1982), Brian Joseph (Greek, 1984), Wayne Leman (Cheyenne, 1984), H. Ono (Japanese, 1984), Ancho Gerganov and Taseva Krasimira (Bulgarian, 1985), Martha Ratcliff (White Hmong, 1986), Johanna Nichols (Chechan, Ingush, 1987), Julie Nemer (Temne, 1987), Anthony Woodbury (Yupik Eskimo, 1987), Bruce Mannheim (Quechua, 1988), John Lawler (English, 1989), Eva-Marie Ernst (German, French, Italien, 1990), Robin Allott (English, 1990's), Anatoly Liberman (Germanic, 1990), William Herlovsky (Japanese, 1991), Hans Kaesmann (English, 1992), H. Fukuda (Japanese, 1993), Shoko Hamano (Japanese, 1994), Murray Elias Denoffsky (English, 1994), Caitlin Hines (English, 1994), Terrence Kaufmann (Haustec, 1994), Margaret Langdon (Guarani, 1994), Randy Lapolla (Mandarin, 1994), James Matisoff (Lahu, 1994), W. McGregor (Kuniyanti, 1996), Janice Nuckolls (Quechua, 1996)

3. p.37 Ernst Cassirer also draws a correlation between Peirce's three levels and various linguistic expressions. But whereas Cassirer sees some expressions as mimetic, others as indexical and others as symbolic, I will propose here that all expressions are all of these at the same time.

4. p 50 These include Abelin (1998, 1999) , Adi and Ewell (1987), Allott (1974), Allport (1935), André (1966, 1967), Anisfeld (1968), Arzhevskaya and Voronin (1986), Austerlitz (1994), Barry and Harper (1995), Bartens (2000), Berlin (1994), Berlin and O'Neill (1981), Bernard-Thierry (1961), Bloomfield (1909-1910), Bolinger (1950), Bradley (1977), Carnoy (1917), Carr (1966), Cassidy, Kelly and Sharoni (2000), Chang (1990), Deed (1939), deLisle (1981), Dempwolff (1938), Denofsky (1994), Diffloth (1976, 1979), Dimock, (1957), Dolinina, (1988), Durand (1961), Durbin (1973), Emeneau (1938, 1969), Emerson (1995, 1996), Ernst (1990), Ertel (1972), Ertel and Dorst (1965), Feld (1982), Fónagy (1963), Frei (1970), Fujita, et. al. (1984), Fukuda (1993), Gamble (1975), Gomi (1989), Gonda (1949-1950), Greenberg and Sapir (1978), Grew (1998), Haas (1970), Hamano (1986, 1994, 1998), Heise (1966), Herlofsky (1981), Hill (1987), Hines (1994), Hoffman (1952), Hough (2000), Householder (1946, 1962), Jacobsen (1994), Jin (1995), Joseph (1984), Kaesmann (1992), Kakehi (1983), Kakehi, Mito, Hayase, Tzuzuki and Young (1981), Kakehi, Schourup and Tamori (1998), Karlgren (1934, 1962), Katkevich (1999), Kaufman (1994), Key (1997), Kim (1977), Kinkade (1976), Langdon (1971, 1994), Lawler (1990), Lee (1992), Leman (1984), Leslau (1961), Levitckij (1973b), Liberman (1990), Lihomanova (1999), Marchand (1952, 1957, 1959a, 1969), Markel and Hamp (1961), Martin (1962), Matisoff (1994), McCune (1983), McGregor (1996), Miles (1848), Mito, et. al. (1981), Morin (1972), Morito (1973), Nemer (1987), Nichols (1986), Nishihari (1980), Nodier (1808), Nuckolls (1996), O'Boyle, Miller and Rahmani (1987), Ono (1984), Oswalt (1971), Philps (1997), Poldervaart (1984, 1989), Pyle (1949), Ratliff (1986), Reichard (1945), Reinius (1908), Rhodes (1994), Sadasivam (1966), Salisbury (1992), Sapir (1911), Schuchardt (1897), Shulepova (1991), Smithers (1954), Tanz (1971), Thorndike (1944, 1945a, 1945b), Thun (1963), Traunmüller (1996), Tsien-Lee (1969), Uhlenbeck (1971), Ultan (1971, 1978), Veldi (1988a, 1989, 1990, 1994a), Voronin (1969), Wescott (1971a, 1973, 1975c, 1975d, 1977, 1978), Westermann (1937), Wilkinson (1936).

5. p. 63 After spending some time at this, one of course is tempted to ask oneself why something which is so readily verifiable is so universally denied. One possible answer is that few linguists actually conduct these experiments themselves; some apparently consider it so unlikely at first glance that it's not worth testing for.

Another reason that the Phonosemantic Hypothesis is still not generally accepted perhaps lies in the enormous influence of proponents of the Conventionalist position -- notably Ferdinand de Saussure, the Junggrammatiker and Noam Chomsky. It certainly hasn't helped matters that proponents of the Naturalist position have often denied that word meaning is in any sense arbitrary or have claimed that certain languages were more iconic and therefore more perfect than others. (My friend Rollin Williams used to joke that in the beginning all people had the perfect name 'Rollin Williams', but whenever they did something wrong, their name changed a little. It's sad but true that many very smart people, having apprehended a smidgin of iconism in their native language, have in all haste and seriousness drawn precisely the same conclusion.) In part, I think the reason for the failure to acknowledge the existence of linguistic iconism probably lies in the relative inaccessibility of the data. That some aspect of word meaning is arbitrary is completely obvious to anyone. The acceptance of the Phonosemantic Hypothesis, however, rests on the acceptance of a Phonosemantic Classificational system. They are somewhat tedious to devise.

In addition, some linguists don't see the data in the same way as others. I have been told, for example, by a linguist reader of Appendix I that he sees no semantic similarity between these words 'bulge' and 'bloat' on the one hand and 'ball' on the other. Probably the 'nouniness' and concreteness of 'ball' obscures the 'bulging' implicit in the word more to some than to others. And it's very common for people to feel that words like 'gleam', 'glimmer', 'glitter' and 'shine' are completely identical in every way. One colleague objected that the phonestheme listed above for walking verbs containing /r/ was missing, for example, the verb 'roar', as in 'to roar down the street'. This usage of 'roar', he pointed out, did not have to refer only to vehicular motion. A child running very fast or running down the street and making a noise like a vehicle could be said to be 'roaring down the street'. Since I felt this was true, I added 'roar' to the phonestheme, and then another colleague objected that 'roar' seemed to her to apply only to vehicles. Of course, what is happening is that the basic 'sense' of 'roar' is not a verb of motion at all, but a verb of sound. It is only metaphorically extended to motion with a prototypically vehicular subject. The motional verb 'roar' with a subject who is on foot is derived a second time from the verb with a vehicular subject. To some people it seems more 'complete' to include 'roar' as a verb of running. To others, it seems like 'pushing it'. And I feel both at the same time, so I have not included or excluded verbs like 'roar' from the phonesthemes in any principled way. Be that as it may, it clear that to the extent that people don't see the data the same, they obviously won't draw the same conclusions about it. But despite concerns like this if I ask myself whether there is any doubt in my mind whether there are indeed significant disproportions between the forms of words and their meanings, then there is none.

6. p. 70 There are a couple other types of words besides the Concrete Nouns which the Phonosemantic Classifications don't work for as well as others. In both cases, I believe the reason for the relative failure is not that the sound-meaning is weaker, but rather that it is much stronger than in the case of most words. In both cases, I think that Phonosemantic Association is weak, because the referent is unclear, but Iconism proper is exerting an unusually powerful effect. One of these classes is the function words, especially the prepositions. These tend to have a very broad meaning, which I believe can be shown to be very strongly rooted in the sound-meaning. That discussion requires the reader accept so many premises that I am still debating here, however, that I've not brought up the function words in this dissertation. The functions words, like the Concrete Nouns also in general have no perfect synonyms, despite the fact that the referent in all but the most basic sense in these words is not at all clear. (What does the 'up' in 'look up a word' and 'walk up to' and 'stop up' refer to?) They therefore don't easily fall into the phonesthemes, not because sound-meaning is weak, but because the word is so unique and bears such a huge functional load in the language. It was mentioned that basic words in a language often form the focus around which other words cluster by Phonosemantic Association. This is in general not the case of the most basic words in the language -- the function words. Phonosemantic Association is a process whereby referents cluster toward a sound. Probably since these words have unclear referents, they do not work well as focal points for Phonosemantic Association.

The other class of words which resist the phonesthemes because Iconism is so strong and reference is non-concrete is slang. New slang words tend to be invented more readily than other types of words, and their effect is so 'touchy-feely', that we avail ourselves of all the sounds in a language in order to produce them. Slang words typically fall in a limited set of Natural Classes, such as insulting words for people (dweeb, geek, nerd, jerk, twit, etc.) and words for something very appealing (cool, snazzy, sharp, groovy, (g)narly?, etc.).

7. p. 76 Just briefly by way of example, clumsiness is expressed in word initial English phonemes as follows:

/b/ (forceful -- boorish, brutish, buffalo, bull in a china shop,...)
/d/ (stupid -- dumb, dunce, dodo, dippy, daft,...)
/g/ (grotesque -- gross, gaudy, ghoulish, garish, garbage, gunk, goo)
/p/ -- no examples
/tr/ (one verb -- trip up)
/kl/ (dysfunctional -- clod, clunker, clumsy, klutz)
/kr/, /kl/, /kw/ (socially inept -- crass, coarse, crazy, clown, queer)
/v/, /D/, /Z/ -- no examples
/z/ -- (crazy -- zoned, zoo)
/fl/ -- (failures and flaws -- fall, flag, flinch, flop, foul)
/s/ -- (dirty -- smirch, smudge, scuff, soil, spot, slop, slobber, slurp, scraggy, scruffy, slovenly)
/sl/ -- (slouch -- slip, slack, slump)
/S/ -- no examples
/h/ -- (hobble -- halt, hock, hop, hulk)
/J/ -- no examples
/C-k/ -- (sudden dysfunction in an ongoing process -- check, choke, chink, chicken out)
/m/ (destructive -- mess, miss, muck, mince, mush)
/n/ (brainless -- nut, ninny, knucklehead)
/l/ (loss, looseness, lame -- lack, lapse, leak, lose, lurch, limbo, limp, lumber)
/r/ (raw, raucus -- rough, rank, runt, rude, rabble, rowdy), (error -- wrong)
/w/ (weird, unstable -- wacky, whoops, wobble, weave, waddle)
/j/ (naive -- young, yellow)

8. p. 103 We might ask ourselves this: What is the simplest account we can offer of this little subset of data -- the monosyllabic verbs in English which concern motion on foot?

In looking at a semantic class of this type one observes patterns in the relationship between the pronunciation and meaning of words. But one does not in general find a straightforward relationship between phonemes and Natural Classes. For example, it's not the case that all running verbs begin with /r/ or that all verbs implying forward motion end in /t/. Instead, there seems to be some kind of dynamic interplay between the consonants that results in the patterning one observes. For example, dynamic motion occurs in one of several contexts... /p/+[+liquid] or verbs which don't contain /p/. It's almost as if the default for /p/ were to keep things in place, and that only the dynamism of the most mobile of consonants -- the liquids -- has the power to dislodge the /p/. This description is, of course, more poetic than scientific, and if there is any truth in it, it would have to be translated into a scientific metaphor and quantified in physical terms.

Without going into it in detail at this point, I suggest one method that could be employed for quantifying observations of this sort. Numerical weights could be assigned to various consonants for stasis vs. dynamism, verticality vs. horizontality, and so forth. These weightings would also be dependent on the position at which the consonant finds itself within the word. The dynamics between /b/ and /l/ is different depending on whether the /b/ precedes the /l/ or the /l/ precedes the /b/, for example. Furthermore, each consonant could be assigned a direction in which its energy is applied. This might be represented as a vector. The stops point back into the mouth, whereas /r/ points out of the mouth. The phoneme /l/ acts like a body of water whose direction sloshes around depending on the environment that it finds itself in. When /l/ is preceded by /g/, it frequently gets 'glued' from behind. This could be describes using this notation as a vector assigned to /g/ pointing back into the mouth pulling on the /l/, which is articulated out in front of it. Similarly, when /l/ is preceded by /b/, it is physically and often semantically blocked or blinded from in front. The force of the /l/ on the /b/ is generally sufficient to produce a 'bulge', but the more directed energy of the /r/ is required to 'break' the barrier of the /b/. Hence many verbs of breakage and branching contain /b/ and /r/. These descriptions are, of course, merely descriptions of the physics of articulation. If the Phonosemantic Hypothesis is correct and if there is an Iconic dimension in phoneme semantics, then Iconism will insure that word semantics is reflected in part in the physics of the mouth during articulation.

If we limit ourselves just to this set of data and try to describe it in the terms just outlined, we might say that /p/ seems to default to stasis, but that liquids have the power to override this stasis and impart dynamism to the word. Whether or not there is any universality to this description remains open to debate. In fact, there is evidence in Appendix V to suggest that this single-pointed stasis in /p/ holds not only of walking verbs. The phoneme /p/ in general strongly emphasizes the 'point'. There are a preponderance of words containing /p/ which refer to small pea-shaped objects, as well as a great many objects like spikes and pins which have points. When the /p/ is followed by an /l/, however, the point tends to spread out into a 'plane' (plate, plateau, platter, plank, plot, etc.). Similarly, verbs of 'pulling' from a specific place usually contain an /l/: peel, plow, plumb, plunge, etc. and similar verbs involving separation tend to contain an /r/: pare, parse, part, prune, pry, etc.

This type of analysis will not be worked out in this dissertation at any length. Since the entire foundation on such a descriptive apparatus would be based is still very much in debate, only the barest outlines of it are proposed.

9. (p157) I calculate the chances that there will be no pairs as n!/((n-p)!(n**p)) where n is 50,000 and p is (349-24)/4=81. The first formula -- n!/((n-p)!(n**p)) -- can be thought of this way. If there is 1 word, then there is a probability of 1 or a 100% chance that there will be no matches. If there are two words, there is a probability of:

50,000/50,000 * 49,999/50,000

that there will be no matches. If there are 3 responses, the probability of no matches is decreased to:

1 * 49,999/50,000 * 49,998/50,000

And so on for as many responses as one gets -- hence, n!/((n-p)!(n**p)). This can be simplified as

(n-0)/n * (n-1)/n * (n-2)/n * ... * (n -(p-1))/n

which is what I actually use to calculate.

Then I subtract this result from 1 to get the probability that there will be a pair (as opposed to the probability of no pairs), and then take the reciprocal to get the answer in the form '1 chance in X'.


Abelin, Aasa (1999), Studies in Sound Symbolism, Gothenburg Monographs in Linguistics, 17, Göteborg.

Adi, Thomas and Ken O. Ewell. (1987), "Letter Semantics in Arabic Morphology", Morphology Workshop Proceedings of the 1987 Linguistic Institute, Stanford University Press, Tokyo 1:450-454.

Allott, Robin (1973), The Physical Foundation of Language. Seaford: ELB..

Allott, Robin (1974), "Some apparent uniformities between languages in colour-naming", Language and Speech 17: 377-402.

Allott, Robin (1981), "Structural inter-relation of language and the processes underlying visual perception and action - indications of isomorphism", UNESCO Symposium on Glossogenetics, Paris.

Allott, Robin (1989), The Motor Theory of Language Origin, Book Guild, Lewes, Sussex.

Allott, Robin (1991), "The Motor Theory of Language",In Studies in Language Origins 2. W. von Raffler-Engel et al. (eds.) John Benjamins, Amsterdam.

Allott, Robin (1991), "Japanese and the Motor Theory of Language", Language Origins Society, De Kalb. Illinois.

Allott, Robin (1993), "The Articulatory basis of the Alphabet", forthcoming in Studies in Language Origins 4: LinstockPress.

Allport, G. (1935), "Phonetic Symbolism in HungarianWords", unpublished ms., Harvard University.

Alpher, Barry (1994), "Yir-Yiront Ideophones",in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000), Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 4th edition.

Anderson, Earl R. (1998), A Grammar of Iconism, Farleigh University Press, Madison, Teaneck.

André, Jacques (1966), "Onomatopées et les noms d-oiseaux en latin", Bulletin de la Societé de Linguistiquede Paris 61: 146-56.

Anisfeld, Moshe (1968), "Subjective Approximation of Relative Letter Incidence in Pleasant and Unpleasant Words", Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 7: 33.

Aoki, Haruo (1994), "Symbolism in Nez Perce",in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.),Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Arzhevskaya, I.S. Stanislav V. Voronin (1986) "K voprosu o RL-formantah v anglijskih zvukoizobrazitel'nyh glagolah", Poluaffiksaciya v terminologii i literaturnoj forme, Vladivostok.

Atzet, J. and Harold B. Gerard (1965), "A Studyof Phonetic Symbolism among Navajo Speakers", Journal of Personalityand Social Psychology, 1: 524-528.

Austerlitz, Robert (1994), "Finnish and Gilyak Sound Symbolism - the Interplay between System and History", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), SoundSymbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Awolyale, Y. (1981), "Nominal Compound Formation inYoruba Ideophones", Journal of African Languages and Linguistics3: 139-157.

Awolyale, Y. (1983-1984), "On the Semantic Fields ofYoruba Ideophoness", Journal of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria2: 11-22.

Awoyale, Y. (1988), "On the Non-Concatenative Morphology of Yoruba Ideophones", paper given at the Nineteenth African LinguisticsConference, Boston University.

Barry, H.and A. S. Harper (1995), "Increased Choice of Female Phonetic Attributes in First Names", Sex Roles, 32: 809-819.

Bartens, Angela (2000), "Ideophones and Sound Symbolism in Atlantic Creoles", Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae, ser. Humaniora, 304, Academiae Scientarum Fennicae, Helsinki

Berghaus, Gunter (1986). "A Theatre of Image, Soundand Motion: on Synaesthesia and the Idea of a Total Work of Art", Maskeund Kothurn: International Beitrage zur Theaterwissenschaft 32: 7-28.

Berlin, Brent (1994), "Evidence for Pervasive SynestheticSound Symbolism in Ethnozoological Nomenclature", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Berlin, Brent and J. O'Neill (1981), "The Pervasiveness of Onomatopoeia in the Jivaroan Language Family", Journal of Ethnobiology1 : 95-108.

Bernard-Thierry, Solange (1961), "Les onomatopées en malgache", Bulletin de la Societé de Linguistique de Paris 50: 240-269.

Bloomfield, Leonard (1909-1910), "A Semasiological Differentiation in Germanic Secondary Ablaut", Modern Philology 7: 245-288, 345-382, partially reprinted in Charles F. Hockett, (ed.), A Leonard Bloomfield Anthology, Bloomington Indiana U. Press.

Bloomfield, Maurice (1891), "On Adaptation of Suffixes in Congeneric Classes of Substantives", American Journal of Philology 12: 1-29.

Bloomfield, Maurice (1893), "On the Origin of So-Called Root Determinatives", Indogermanische Forschungen 4: 66-78.

Bloomfield, Maurice (1895), "On Assimilation and Adaptation in Congeneric Classes of Words", American Journal of Philology16: 409-434.

Blust, Robert A. (1969), "Some Proto-Austronesian Trisyllabels", Oceanic Linguistics 8: 85-104.

Bolinger, Dwight (1940), "Word Affinities", American Speech 15: 69-70.

Bolinger, Dwight (1949), "The Sign is not Arbitrary", Boletín del Instituto Caro y Cuervo 5: 56-62.

Bolinger, Dwight (1950), "Chiviarri and the Phonestheme", American Speech, 25: 134-135.

Bolinger, Dwight (1950), "Rime, Assonance and Morpheme Analysis", Word, 6: 2,117-136.

Bolinger, Dwight (1965), "Atomization of Meaning", Language 41.

Brackbill, Y. and K. B. Little (1957), "Factors Determining the Guessing and Meaning of Foreign Words", Journal of Abnormal and Social Pychology 54: 312-318.

Bradley, David (1977), "Sound Symbolism in Jinghpaw (Kachin)", Man 12:336-37.

de Brosses, Charles (1765), Traité de la formation mécanique des lnguages et des principes physiques de l'Étymologie, Saillant, Vincent & Desaint, Paris.

Brown, Roger W., A. H. Black and A. E. Horowitz (1955), "Phonetic Symbolism in Natural Languages", Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 50: 388-393.

Callebaut, Bruno (1985), "Onomatopées et noms d'oiseaux en français", Le français moderne, 53: 49-77.

Carnoy, Albert J. (1917), "Apophony and Rhyme Words in Vulgar Latin Onomatopoeias", American Journal of Philology, 38.

Carr, Denzel (1966), "Homorganicity in Malay/IndonesianExpressives and Quasi-Expressives", Language 42: 370-377.

Carroll, Lewis (1962), Alice in Wonderland,Through the Looking Glass, Puffin Books, England.

Cassidy, K.W., Michael Kelly and L. Sharoni (), "Inferring gender from name phonology", Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Chan, Marjorie K.M (1995), "Sound symbolism and water sizes: a preliminary Fuzhou study", Second Symposium of the Chao Yuen Ren Center for Chinese Linguistics, Institute of East Asian Studies, U.C. Berkeley, California.

Chang, Andrew C. A (1990), Thesaurus of Japanese Mimesis and Onomatopoeia: Usage by Categories. Taishukan, Tokyo.

Childs, G. Tucker (1988), "The Phonology of Kisi Ideophones", Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 10: 165-190.

Childs, G. Tucker (1989), "Where Do Ideophones ComeFrom?", Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 19(2): 55-73.

Childs, G. Tucker (1994), "Expressiveness in Contact Situations: the Fate of African Ideophones", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 9(1).

Childs, G. Tucker (1994), "African Ideophones",in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.),Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Chvany, Catherine (1986), "Translating One Poem from a Cycle: Cvetaeva's 'Your Name is a Bird in My Hand' from 'Poems to Blok'", in New Studies in Russian Language and Literature, Anna Lisa Crone and Catherine V. Chvany (eds.), Slavic Publishers, Columbus, OH.

Coseriu, E. (1967), "Zur Vorgeschichte der strukturellen Semantik: Heyses Analyse der Wortfel des 'Schall'", in To Honor Roman Jakobson I: 667-671, Mouton, the Hague.

Davis, R. (1961), "The Fitness of Names to Drawings: a Cross-Cultural Study in Tanganyika", British Journal of Psychology52: 259-268.

Deed, F. I. (1939), "Ideophones and Onomatopoetics in Swahili", Interterritorial Language Committee, Bulletin 13.

deLisle, Helga H. (1981), "Consonantal Symbolism in American Indian Languages", Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest 4: 130-42.

Dempwolff, Otto (1925), " Die L-, R- und D-Laute in Austronesischen Sprachen", Zeitschrift für eingeborenen, Sprachen,15: 19-50, 116-138, 228-238, Berlin.

Dempwolff, Otto (1938), "Vergleichende Lautlehre des Austronesischen Wortschatzes III", Zeitschrift für eingeborenen,Sprachen, Beiheft 19, Berlin.

Denofsky, Murray Elias (1994), "Indo-EuropeanB Root Classes", ms..

Denofsky, Murray Elias (1994), "Radial Sets of DictionaryWords Used to Define the Sound Symbolism of /sh/ in English", ms..

Diffloth, Gérard (1976), "Expressives in Semai",in Austroasiatic Studies, Oceanic Linguistics, Special Publications13: 1, Hawaii University Press, 249-264.

Diffloth, Gérard (1994), "i: big, a: small",in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Dimock, Edward C. (1957), "Symbolic Forms in Bengali", Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute, 18: 22-29.

Doke, Clement Martyn (1931), A Comparaitve Study of ShonaPhonetics, University of the Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg.

Doke, Clement Martyn (1935), Bantu Linguistic Terminology, Longmans, London.

Doke, Clement Martyn (1954), The Southern Bantu Languages,Oxford University Press, London and NY.

Doke, Clement Martyn and B. W. Vilakazi (1958), Zulu-EnglishDictionary, Johannesburg.

Dolinina, I.B (1988), "Kolichestvennaya determinaciya dejstviya: dinamika form i znachenij v anglijskom yazyke", Dinamika morfologicheskih kategorij v germanskom yazyke, Kalinin.

Durand, M. (1961), "Les impressifs en Vietnamien, Étude préliminaire", Bulletin de la Société des EtudesIndochinoises, Nouvelle Série 36: 1, Saigon.

Durbin, Marshall E. (1973), "Sound Symbolism in the Mayan Language Family", in Munro S. Edmonson, (ed.) Meaning in Mayan Languages, Mouton, The Hague.

Eberhardt, Margarete (1940), "A Study of Phonetic Symbolism of Deaf Children", Psychological Monograph, 52: 23-42.

Emeneau, Murray B. (1938), "Echo Words in Toda", New Indian Antiquary 1: 109-17.

Emeneau, Murray B. (1969), "Onomatopoetics in the Indian Linguistic Area", Language 45: 274-299.

Emerson, Ralph H. (1995), "Some English Phonesthemes".ms..

Emerson, Ralph H. (1996), "Bang: A Lookat Nasal-Stop Semantics", ms..

Emerson, Ralph W. (1981 [1836]), Nature in Carl Bode (ed.), The Portable Emerson,Penguin, NY.

Ernst, Eva-Maria (1990), "Die Onomatopoetik der Tierlaute und der entsprechende Verben im Deutschen, Französischen und Italienischen", MA thesis, U. of Vienna.

Ertel, Suitbert (1972), "Statistische Untersuchungenzur Lautbedeutsamkeit mit 37 Sprachen", ms, Institut für Psychologie, der Universität Göttingen.

Ertel, Suitbert and R. Dorst (1965), "Expressive Lautsymbolik: eine Überprüfung der Hypothese mit 25 Sprachen",Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie 12:557-569.

Etzel, Stefan (1983), Untersuchungen zur Lautsymbolik, PhD dissertation, University of Frankfurt am Main.

Feld, Steven (1982), Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression, University of Pennsylvania Press,Philadelphia.

Firth, John Rupert (1935), "The Use and Distributionof Certain English Sounds", English Studies, 17: 8-18.

Firth, John Rupert (1951), "Modes and Meaning", Papers in Linguistics, London.

Fischer-Jørgensen, Eli (1967), "Perceptual Dimensions of Vowels", for Roman Jakobson I: 667-671, Mouton, the Hague.

Fischer-Jørgensen, Eli (1978), "On the Universal Character of Phonetic Symbolism with Special Reference to Vowels", Studia Linguistica 32: 80-90.

Fónagy, Ivan (1956), "Über die Eigenart des Sprachlichen Zeichens", Lingua 6.

Fónagy, Ivan (1961), "Communication in Poetry", Word 17: 194-201.

Fónagy, Ivan (1962), "Mimik auf glottaler Ebene", Phonetica 8: 309-320.

Fónagy, Ivan (1963), Die Metaphern in der Phonetik, Mouton, The Hague.

Fónagy, Ivan (1964), "Information du style verbal"Linguistics 4: 19-47.

Fónagy, Ivan (1965), "Le language poétique: forme et fonction", Diogène 51: 72-116.

Fónagy, Ivan (1965), "Contribution to the Physei.Thesei Debate", in Omagiu lui Alexandru Rosetti, Editura AcademieiRepublici Socialiste România.

Fónagy, Ivan (1979), La métaphore en phonétique Ottowa, Didier.

Fónagy, Ivan (1983), La vive voix: Essais de psycho-phonétique,Paris, Payot.

Fónagy, Ivan and Judit Fónagy (1970),"Distribution of Phonemes in Word Sets Contrasting in Meaning", Mélanges Marcel Cohen, The Hague, Mouton.

Frei, Henri (1970), Cinquante onomatopées japonaises", in D. Cohen, (ed.), MÉlanges Marcel Cohen, Janua Linguarum, Series Maior 27, Mouton, the Hague.

Fujita, Takashi et. al. (1984), Wa-ei giongo/gitaigo honyaku jiten (Japanese/English: Mimesis/Onomatopoeia translation dictionary), Kinseid , Tokyo

Fukuda, Hiroko (1993), Flip, Slither, Bang; Japanese Sound in Action, Kondansha Intl.

Gabelentz, Georg von der (1891), Die Sprachwissenschaft: Ihre Aufgaben, Methoden und bisherige Ergebnisse, Leipzig.

Gamble, Geoffrey (1975), "Consonant Symbolism in Yokuts", International Journal of American Linguistics 41: 306-09.

Gébelin, Antoine Court de (1775), "Origine du langage et de l'Écriture", Le Monde primitif, considéré dans l'histoire naturelle de la parole, Paris.

Genette, Gérard (1968), "Le jour, la nuit", Languages, 12: 28-42.

Genette, Gérard (1976), Mimologiques, Paris, Seuil; (1995) Mimiologics, Thaïs Morgan (trans.), University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Gerganov, Ancho, Taseva Krasimira (1985), "Eksperimentalnoisledovane na emocianalnoto v=zdejstvie na nqkoi zvuko=hetaniq v b=lgarskiqezik".

Gomi, Tar (1989), "An illustrated Dictionary of Japanese Onomatoporetic Expressions", Japan Times, Tokyo.

Gonda, Jan (1949-1950), "The Function of Word Duplication in Indonesian Languages", Lingua 2: 170-197.

Gonda, Jan (1940), "Some Remarks on Onomatopoeia, Sound Symbolism and Word Formation a propos of the Theories of C. N. Maxwell",Tidschrift voor Indische Taal, Land- en Volkenkunde, uitgegeven doorhet Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschep van Kunsten en Wetenschappen 80:133-210.

Gonda, Jan (1948), "The Comparative Method as Applied to the Indonesian Languages", Lingua 1: 86-101.

Gordon, Matthew and Jeffrey Heath (1998), "Sex, Sound Symbolism, and Sociolinguistics", Current Anthropology, 39:4, 421-450.

Grammont, Maurice (1901), "Onomatopées et mots expressifs", in Tretenaire de la Societé pour l'Étude des Langues Romanes, 261-322, Montpellier.

Grammont, Maurice (1908), Petit Traité de Versification française, Paris.

Grammont, Maurice (1913), Le vers français: ses moyens d'expression, son harmonie, Libraire ancienne Honoré Champion, Paris, Paris: Picard et fils.

Grammont, Maurice (1914), Traité practique de Prononciation françcaise, Paris.

Grammont, Maurice (1933, 1971), Traité de phonétique,Delagrave, Paris.

Greenberg, S. and J. D. Sapir (1978), "Acoustic Correlatesof 'Big' and 'Thin' in Kujamutay", Proceedings of the Fourth Annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley Linguistics Society,Berkeley, CA, 293-310.

Grew, Philip (1998), "Phonological Clusters of Semantically Similar Words", Linguist's List re: 9:1050.

Haas, Mary R. (1970), "Consonant Symbolism in Northwestern California", in Earl H. Swanson, Jr, (ed.), Languages and Cultures of Western North America: Essays in Honor of Sven S. Liljeblad, Idaho State University Press, Pocatello, 86-96.

Hamano, Shoko (1986), "The Sound Symbolic System of Japanese", PhD dissertation,University of Florida.

Hamano, Shoko (1994), "Palatalization in Japanese Sound Symbolism", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Heise, David (1966), "Sound-Meaning Correlations among1000 English Words", Language and Speech 9: 14.

Helson, Harry (1933, "A Child's Spontaneous Reports of Imagery", American Journal of Psychology, 45: 360-361.

Herlovsky, William (1981), Phonetic Symbolism in Japanese Onomatopoeia, MA thesis, University of Michigan.

Hill, Spencer R. (1987), Sound Symbolism: An Aural Look at Selected English Consonant Clusters, Brigham Young University dissertation.

Hines, Caitlin (1994), "What's so Easy about Pie? The Lexicalization of a Metaphor", Conceptual Structure, Discourse and Language Conference, San Francisco State University.

Hinton, Leanne , Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala (1994), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Hiraga, Masako K. (1987), "Eternal Stillness: A Linguistic Journey to Basho's _Haiku_ about the Cicada", Poetics Today8(1): 5-18.

Hiraga, Masako K. (1993), "Iconicity in Poetry: How Poetic Form Embodies Meaning", in Semiotics 1990, edited by Karen Haworth, John Deely, and Terry Prewitt, 115-126,New York: University Press of America.

Hiraga, Masako K. (1993), "Iconic Meanings of VisualRepetition in Poetry", in Semiotics 1991, edited by John Deely and Terry Prewitt, 95-103, New York: University Press of America.

Hiraga, Masako K. (1994), "Diagrams and Metaphors:Iconic Aspects in Language", The Journal of Pragmatics 22(1):5-21.

Hiraga, Masako K (1998), "Metaphor-Icon Link in Poetic Texts: A Cognitive Approach to Iconicity", Journal of the University of the Air 16: 95-123.

Hiraga, Masako K. (in press), "'Blending' and an Interpretation of _Haiku_: A Cognitive Approach", Poetics Today.

Hiraga, Masako K., and Joanna Radwanska-Williams, eds. (1994), "Metaphor and Iconicity", Special issue, Journal of Pragmatics 22 (1).

Hjelmslev, Louis (1943), Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, translated by F. J. Whitfield, University of Wisconson Press, Madison.

Hoffman, Karl (1952), "Wiederholende Onomatopoetika im Altindischen", Indogermanische Forschungen 60: 254-264.

Hough, C. (2000), "Toward an Explanation of Phonetic Differentiation in Masculine and Feminine Personal Names", Journal of Linguistics, 36: 1-11.

Householder, Fred W. (1962), "Azerbaijani Onomatopes", N. Poppo (ed.), American Studies in Altaic Linguistics, Bloomington, IN, 115-121.

Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1836), Über die Verschiedenheit des Menschlichen Sprachbauesund ihren Einfluß auf die geistige Entwicklung des Menschengeschlechts,Druckerei der KÖnglichen Akademie, Berlin, Reprinted Bonn: Dummler,1960.

Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1905), "Über die allgemeinen GrundsÄtze der Wortbetonung", Werke, Albert Leitzmann (ed.),Behrs, Berlin.

Jacobsen, William H., Jr. (1994), "Nootkan Vocative Vocalism and its Implications", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Jakobson, Roman (1960), "Closing Statement: Linguisticsand Poetics", in T. A. Sebeok, (ed.), Style in Language, MITPress, Cambridge, MA.

Jakobson, Roman (1960), "Why 'Mama' and 'Papa'? Perspectives in Psychological Theory, Essays in Honor of Heinz Werner", in SelectedWritings I, Mouton de Gruyter.

Jakobson, Roman (1962), "Diskussion", in Zeichen und System der Sprache II: 50-56.

Jakobson, Roman (1966), "Quest for the Essence of Language", Selected Writings II 51: 345-359.

Jakobson, Roman (1971), "Language in Relation to Other Communication Systems", Selected Writings, vol. II. 697-708.

Jakobson, Roman (1970), "Subliminal Verbal Patterningin Poetry", in Roman Jakobson and S. Kawomoto, (eds.), Studies inGeneral and Oriental Linguistics, TEC Tokyo, 302-308.

Jakobson, Roman (1978), Sound and Meaning, MIT Press,London.

Jakobson, Roman (1978), "Sound Symbolism and DistinctiveFeatures", unpublished ms. presented at the Conference on Semiotics and the Arts, University of Michigan.

Jakobson, Roman (1979), "Speech Sounds and their Tasks",in Roman Jakobson Selected Writings VIII, Mouton de Gruyter.

Jakobson, Roman (1979), "Six leçons sur leson et le sens", in Roman Jakobson Selected Writings VIII, Mouton de Gruyter.

Jakobson, Roman (1981), "Poetry of Grammar and Grammar of Poetry", Mouton de Gruyter.

Jakobson, Roman (1981), "Stix i zvuki rehi", in RomanJakobson Selected Writings VIII, Mouton de Gruyter.

Jakobson, Roman and L. R. Waugh (1979), The Sound Shape of Language, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.

Jespersen, Otto (1922), "Lydsybolik", NordiskTidsskrift för Vetenskap, Konst och Industri, Stockholm.

Jespersen, Otto (1933), "The Symbolic Value of theVowel i", Linguistica, College Park, MD, or in Selected Papers of O. Jespersen in English French and German, Levin and Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 283-303, or (1922), Philologica 1: 1-19.

Jespersen, Otto (1922), Language - Its Nature, Developmentand Origin, Allen and Unwin, London, Chapter 20.

Jespersen, Otto (1942), A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principals, Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen.

Jin, Shunde (1995), Sound symbolism in Shanghai onomatopoeia,Ohio State University, MS.

Joseph, Brian D. (1991), "A Greek Perspective on the Question of Arbitrariness of Linguistic Signs", Modern Greek Studies year book 7: 335-352.

Joseph, Brian D. (1994), "Modern Greek ts: Beyond Sound Symbolism", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Jurafsky, Daniel (1996), "Universal Tendencies in the Semantics of the Diminutive", Language 72: 533-578.

Kaesmann, Hans (1992), "Das englische Phonasthem sl-"in H. Kaesmann, H. Gneuss, E. Wolff and Th. Wolpers, Anglia, MaxNiemeyer Verlag, Tübingen, 110: 307-346.

Kakehi, Hisao (1983), "Onomatopoetic Expressions in Japanese and English", in Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Linguists, Tokyo.

Kakehi, Hisao, Lawrence Schourup,Ikuhiro Tamori (1998), A Dictionary of Iconic Expressions in Japanese, Mouton, The Hague.

Kakehi, Hisao and Ikuhiro Tamori, eds. (1993), Onomatopoeia, Keiso-Shobo, Tokyo.

Karlgren, Bernhard (1934), "Word families in Chinese", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 5.9-120.

Katkevich, O.A. (1999), "Izobrazitel'naya leksika v shamanskih tekstah severnyh sel'kupov", Materialy vserossijskoj konferencii, 141, Moskva.

Kaufman, Terrence (1994), "Symbolism and Change inthe Sound System of Haustec", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Kendon, Adam (1986), "Iconicity in Walpiri Sign Language" in Paul Bouissac et al. (eds), Iconicity: Essays on the Nature of Culture,Gunter Narr, TÜbingen, 7-15.

Key, Margaret (1997), The Polysemy Structure of Japanese Mimetics, M.A. thesis, Indiana University.

Khatena, Joe (1969), "'Onomatopoeia and Images': Preliminary Validity Study of a Test of Originality", Perceptual and Motor Skills 28: 335-38.

Khlebnikov, Velemir (1987), Tvoreniya, Izdatel'stvo "Sovetskij Pisatel", Moscow.

Kim, Kong-On (1977), "Sound Symbolism in Korean", Journal of Linguistics, 13: 67-75.

Kinkade, M. Dale (1976), "Columbian Salishan Imitative Words", presented at the American Anthropological Association.

Koriat, Asher and I. Levy (1977), "The Symbolic Implications of Vowels and of their Orthographic Representations in Two Natural Languages [Japanese and Hindi]", Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 6: 93-103.

Lakoff, George (1987), Women Fire and Dangerous Things, University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, George. and Mark Johnson (1980), Metaphors We Live By, University of Chicago Press.

Langdon, Margaret (1971), "Sound Symbolism in Yuman Languages", in Jesse O. Sawyer, (ed.), Studies in American Indian Languages, University of California Publications in Linguistics 65:149-173.

Langdon, Margaret (1994), "Noise Words in Guaraní",in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Lapolla, Randy J. (1994), "An Investigation of Phonetic Symbolism as it Relates to Mandarin Chinese", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Lawler, John (1979), "Mimicry in Natural Language", The Elements, Chicago Linguistic Society.

Lawler, John (1989), "Women, Men and Bristly Things",in , G. Larsen, D. Brentari, L. McLeod (eds.), The Joy of Grammar: AFestschrift for James McCawley.

Lee, Jin-Seong (1992), Phonology and Sound Symbolism of Korean Ideophones, 379pp, Hanshin Publishing Co, Seoul.

Leibniz, Gottfriend Wilhelm (1794), Unvorgreifliche Gedanken betreffend der Ausübungund Verbesserung der Teutschen Sprache, in Beitrage zur deutschen SprachkundeI, Smmlung, Berlin.

Leibniz, Gottfriend Wilhelm (1765,1981), New Essays on Human Understanding, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Leman, Wayne E. (1984), "Cheyenne Deixis and Sound Symbolism", William Cowan, (ed.), Papers of the Fifteenth Algonquian Conference, Ottawa: Carleton University.

Leslau, Wolf (1961), "Echo-Words in Ethiopic", Annals d'Etiopie 4: 205-38.

Levitckij, V. V. (1971), "Chu isnuje universal'nyj zvukosymvolizm'", Movoznavstvo 1: 25-37.

Levitckij, V. V. (1973), Semantika i fonetika. Posobie,podgotovlennoe na materiale eksperimental;nyx issledovanii, Hernovcy gosudarstvennyj universitet.

Levitckij, V. V. (1973), "Symvolichni znachennja ukrajins'kyx holosnyx i pryholosnyx", Movoznavstvo 2: 36-49.

Liberman, Anatoly (1990), "Etymological Studies III: Some Germanic Words Beginning with FL-. Language at Play", General Linguistics, 30(2).

Lihomanova, L..F. (1999), "Anglijskie zvukoizobrazi tel'nye glagoly dvizheniya: fonosemanticheskaya klassifikaciya", Materialy vserossijskoj konferencii, 160, Moskva.

Lost Books of the Bible, "Infancy I and Infancy II",Bell Publishing Co., NY.

Locke, John (1690,1975), Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Clarendon Press, Oxford.(con)

Maduka, Omen Namdi (1982), "Phonosemantic Analysis of Ideophones", 3rd Meeting of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria.

Maduka, Omen Namdi (1983-1984), "Igbo Ideophones and the Lexicon", Journal of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria2: 23-29.

Maduka, Omen Namdi (1988), "The Critical Psycho-Morphin Igbo", paper presented at the Ninth Annual Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria, Obafemi, Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,Nigeria.

Maduka, Omen Namdi (1988), "Size and Shape Ideophonesin Nembe", Studies in African Linguistics 19(2): 93-113.

Magnus, Margaret (1998), The Gods of the Word: Archetypes in the Consonants, Truman State University Press, Kirksville,MO.

Malkiel, Yakov (1959), "Studies in Irreversible Binomials", Lingua 8: 113-60.

Malkiel, Yakov (1959), "Secondary Uses of Letters in Language", Romance Philology 19: 1-27.

Malkiel, Yakov (1976), "Multi-Colored Sound Changeand the Impact of Morphology on Phonology", Language 52: 757-778.

Malkiel, Yakov (1978), "From Phonosymbolism to Morphosymbolism", The Fourth LACUS Forum, Hornbeam, Columbia, SC, 511-529.

Malkiel, Yakov (1985), "Integration of Phonosymbolismwith other Categories of Language Change", Seventh Internation Conferenceon Hispanic Languages.

Malkiel, Yakov (1990), Diachronic Problems in Phonosymbolism, J. Benjamins PublishingCompany, Amsterdam, Philadelphia.

Malkiel, Yakov (1994), "Regular Sound Development,Phonosymbolic Orchestration, Disambiguation of Homonyms", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), SoundSymbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Maltzman, I., L. Morrisett, L. and L. Brooks (1956), "An Investigation of Phonetic Symbolism", The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 53: 245-251.

Mamphwe, C. T. (1987), "The Ideophone in Venda", honors dissertation, University of South Africa, Pretoria.

Mannheim, Bruce and Madeleine Newfield (1984?), "Iconicity in Phonological Change", in A. Ahlquist, (ed.), Papers from theFifth International Conference of Historical Linguistics, John Benjamins B. V., Amsterdam.

Marchand, Hans (1952), "Alliteration, Ablaut und Reimin den Türkischen Zwillingsformen", Oriens 5: 60-69.

Marchand, Hans (1949), "L'Étude des onomatopées. Quelques points mÉthododiques", Dialogues, cahiers de litterature et de linguistique, Fabulté des Lettres, Université d'Istanbul 1: 124-34.

Marchand, Hans (1957), "Motivation by Linguistic Form:English Ablaut and Rime-combinations and their Relevancy to Word Formation",Studia neophilologia 29: 54-66.

Marchand, Hans (1959), "Phonetic Symbolism in English Word Formation", Indogermanische Forschungen 64: 146-168.

Marchand, Hans (1969), The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word Formation: A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach, Second Edition, Munich, C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Markel, Norman and Eric P. Hamp (1961), "Connotative Meanings of Certain Phonetic Sequences", Studies in Linguistics15: 47-61.

Marks, Lawrence E. (1975), "On Colored-Hearing Synesthesia: Cross-Modal Translations of Sensory Dimensions", Psychological Bulletin82: 303-331.

Marks, Lawrence E. (1982), "Bright Sneezes and Dark Coughs, Loud Sunlight and Soft Moonlight", Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 8: 177-93.

Marks, Lawrence E. (1989), "On Cross-modal Similarity:the Perceptual Structure of Pitch, Loudness and Brightness", Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 15: 586-602.

Marks, Lawrence E. (1978), The Unity of the Senses: Interrelations among the Modalities, Academic Press, NY.

Martin, Samuel Elmo (1962), "Phonetic Symbolism in Korean", Uralic and Altaic Series, 13, Indiana University Press.

Matisoff, James, A. (1994), "The Tone, Intonation and Sound Symbolism in Lahu: Loading the Syllable Canon", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Matthews, G. H. (1970), "Some Notes on Proto-Siouan Continuants", International Journal of American Linguistics 36: 98-109.

Maxwell, Charleton N. (1932), The Malay Language and How to Learn It, Kuala Lumpur: Kyle, Palmer and Co..

Maxwell, Charleton N. (1933), An Introduction to theElements of the Malay Language, Kuala Lumpur, VIII.

McCune, Keith M. (1983), The Internal Structure of Indonesian Roots, Pd.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.

McGregor, W. (1996), "Sound Symbolism in Kuniyanti, a Language of Western Africa, Word 47(3): 339-364.

Miles, Pliny (1848), A Mnemotechnic Dictionary, Mark H. Newman and Co., New York.

Miron, Murray S. (1961), "A Cross-Linguistic Investigation of Phonetic Symbolism", Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 62: 623-630.

Mithun, Marianne (1982), "The Synchronic and Diachronic Behavior of Plops, Squeaks, Croaks, Sighs and Moans", International Journal of American Linguistics 48: 49-58.

Mito, Yûichi et. al. (1981), Ni-ei taishio: giseigo jiten (Japanses English Compared: Onomatopoeia Dictionary, Gakushohö, Tokyo.

Morin, Yves (1972), "The Phonology of Echo Words in French", Language 48: 97-108.

Morito, Y. (1973), A Survey of Echoic Words in English, Denki Daigaka Kenkyu-Hokoku, Tokyo, 21.

Morton, Eugene, S. (1994), "Sound Symbolism and its Role in Non-Human Invertebrate Communication", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Nemer, Julie F. (1987), "Phonological Stereotypes and Names in Temne", Language in Society 16: 341-352.

Newman, Stanley, S. (1933), "Further Experiments in Phonetic Symbolism", American Journal of Psychology 45: 53-75.

Newman, Stanley, S. (1933), "Bella Coola Reduplication", International Journal of American Linguistics 37: 34-38.

Newman, Stanley, S. (1939), "Personal Symbolism in Language Patterns", Psychiatry 2: 177-182.

Nichols, Johanna (1971), "Diminutive consonant symbolism in Western North America", Language 47: 826-848.

Nishihari, T. (1980), A List of Expressive Words in Modern English, Seinan Linguistic Institute.

Nodier, Charles (1808), Dictionnaire raisonnée des onomatopÉes franÇaises,Demonville, Paris., republished 1828 by Delangle, Paris., edited and published1984 by Trans-Europ-Repress, Mauvezin.

Nodier, Charles (1834), Notions Élémentairesde linguiqstique, Renduel, Paris.

Nuckolls, Janice B. (1996),Sounds Like Life: Sound Symbolic Grammar, Performance and Cognition inPastaza Quechua, Oxford University Press, NY.

O'Boyle, Michael W., David A. Miller, and Fahim Rahmani(1987), "Sound-Meaning Relationships in Speakers of Urdu and English: Evidence for a Cross-Cultural Phonetic Symbolism", Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 16: 273-288.

Ohala, John J. (1994), "The Frequency Code Underlies the Sound Symbolic Use of Voice Pitch", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Ono, H. (1984), Nichiei Gion Gitaigo Katsuyo Jiten, (A Practical Guide to Japanese-English Onomatopoeia and Mimesis), Hokuseido press, Tokyo.

Orr, John (1944), "On Some Sound Values in English",British Journal of Psychology 35: 1-18.

Orr, John (1953), Words and Sounds in English and French,Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Oswalt, Robert L. (1971), "Inanimate Imitatives in Pomo", in Jesse Sawyer, (ed.) Studies in American Indian Languages,University of California Publications in Linguistics 65: 175-190.

Ostwalt, Peter F. (1994), "Some Observations on the Function of Sound in Clinical Work", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Oswalt, Robert L. (1994), "Inanimate Imitatives in English", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Paget, Sir Richard (1930), Human Speech, Harcourt, Brace and Co., London.

Peirce, Charles S. (1932), Collected Papers, Cambridge, MA.

Peirce, Charles S. (1955 [1902]),"Logic as Semiotic:the Theory of Signs", in S. Büchler (ed.), Philosophical Writings,98-119, Dover, NY.

Pentland, David (1975), "Diminutive Consonant Symbolism in Algonquian", Papers at the Sixth Annual Algonquian Conference,Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service Paper no. 23, National museumof Man, Ottowa.

Peterfalvi, Jean-Michele (1970), Recherches expérimentalessur le symbolisme phonétique, Centre nationale de recherche scientifique, Paris.

Philps, Dennis (1997), "<sn->, du marqueur aumythe", Anglophonia/Sigma, 2: 209-238, Toulouse : Presses Universitaires du Mirail.

Plato(1961), "Cratylus",in Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns, (eds.), Plato, the Collected Dialogues, Princeton University Press.

Poldervaart, Arie (1984), Northern Paiute Subanalysis .Informal Notes, presented at Friends of Uto-Aztecan Conference.

Poldervaart, Arie (1989), Proto Uto-Aztecan Subanalysis, Part III Phoneme meanings. Informal Notes, presented at Friends of Uto-AztecanConference.

Pope, Alexander (), Essay on Criticism, II

Priestly, Tom M. S. (1994), "On Levels of Analysis of Sound Symbolism in Poetry, with an Application to Russian Poetry", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Prokofieva, Larissa (1995), The color symbolism of sounds as a component of Individual Style of Poets, (on the material of A.Block, K.Balmont, A.Bely, V.Nabokov), The kandidatskaya dissertation (PhD), 290pp, Saratov State University, Saratov.

Proust, Marcel (1970), The Remembrance of Things Past, Random House, NY.

Pyle, Charles (1949), "English Words with Consituent Elements Having Independent Semantic Value", Philologica: the Malone Anniversary Studies, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Ratcliff, Martha (1986), "A Test for Tonal Iconicity in White Hmong Expressives", Sound Symbolism Conference, Berkeley.

Reichard, Gladys (1945), "Composition and Symbolismof Coeur d'Alene Verb Stems", International Journal of American Linguistics, 11: 47-63.

Reinius, J. (1908), Onomatopoetische Bezeichnungen fürmenschliche Wesen, besonders im Deutschen and Englischen, Stockholm.

Renan, Ernest (1848, 1958), "De l'origine du langage", Oeuvres complètes, vol. 8, Calmann-Levy, Paris.

Rhodes, Richard (1980), "On the Semantics of the InstrumentalFinals of Ojibwa", in W. Cowan, (ed.), Papers of the Eleventh Algonquian Conference, Ottawa: Carleton University Press.

Rhodes, Richard (1981), "On the Semantics of Ojibwa Verbs of Breaking", in W. Cowan, (ed.) Papers of the Twelfth Algonquian Conference, Ottawa: Carleton University Press.

Rhodes, Richard and John Lawler (1981), "Athematic Metaphors", Papers from the 17th Annual Meeting of the Chicago LinguisticsSociety, Chicago.

Rhodes, Richard (1994), "Aural Images", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Rimbaud, Arthur (1871), "Le sonnet des voyelles",in Oeuvres de Arthur Rimbaud, Mercure de France, Paris.

Rimbaud, Arthur (1873), "Alchimie du Verbe", Une Saison en Enfer, in Oeuvres de Arthur Rimbaud, Mercure de France,Paris.

Robinson, James,(ed.) (1978), The Nag Hammadi Library, Harper Collins Publishers, San Francisco.

Rosch, Eleanor (1973), "Natural Categories", Cognitive Psychology, 4: 328-350.

Ross, John Robert (1975), "The Sound of Meaning", lecture delivered at the University of Michigan.

Ross, John Robert (1975), "The Chopper and the Sounder",Fifteenth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago.

Ross, John Robert (1986), "Poems as Holograms", in Peter C. Bjarkman and Viktor Raskin (eds.), The Real-World Linguist: Applications in the 1980's, Ablex Publishing Company, Norwood, NJ.

Ross, John Robert (1986), "The Source of Verbal Musicin Poetry", in Language and Literature, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on English Language Teaching in Egypt, Ain Shams University,Cairo.

Ross, John Robert (1990?), "Hologramming in a Robert Frost Poem: the Still Point", ms..

Ross, John Robert (1991), "Fog Cat Fog", in Robert Hoffman and David Palermo (eds.), Cognition and the Symbolic Process: Applied and Ecological Perspectives, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 187-205.

Sadasivam, M. (1966), Olikkurippakarati, [Dictionary of Expressives in Tamil], Pari Nilaiyam.

Salisbury, Kimberly (1992), "The Catalogue of /kvn/ words of the World", ms..

Samarin, William J. (1965), "Perspective on African Ideophones", African Studies 24: 117-121.

Samarin, William J. (1967), "Determining the Meanings of Ideophones", Journal of West African Linguistics, 4(2): 35-41.

Samarin, William J. (1969), "The Art of Gbeya Insults", International Journal of American Linguistics 35: 323-329.

Samarin, William J. (1970), "Field Procedures in IdeophoneResearch", Journal of African Languages 9(1): 27-30.

Samarin, William J. (1970), "Inventory and Choice in Expressive Language", Word 26: 153-169.

Samarin, William J. (1971), "Survey of Bantu Ideophones", Africa Language Studies, 12: 130-168.

Samarin, William J. (1971), "Measuring Variation in the Use of Gbeya Ideophones", Proceedings of the 8th Congress ofthe West African Linguistics Association II: 483-488.

Samarin, William J. (1972), "Appropriateness and Metaphor in the Use of Ideophones", Orbis 20: 356-369.

Samarin, William J. (1991), "Intrasubjective and Intradialectal Variation in Gbeya Ideophones", Journal of Linguistic Anthropology,1(1): 52-62.

Sapir, Edward (1911), "Diminutive and augmentative consonant symbolism in Wishram", Handbook of American Indian Languages Bureau of American Indian Ethnography, Washington, D.C. Bulletin 40(1):638-646.

Sapir, Edward (1929), "A Study in Phonetic Symbolism", Journal of Experimental Psychology 12: 225-239.

Sapir, Edward (1933), "La réalité psychologique des phonèmes", Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique 30: 247-265.

de Saussure, Ferdinand (1971, originally 1916), Coursde Linguistique GÉnÉrale, Payot, Paris.

Schaefer, Charles E. (1970), "Onomatopoeia and Images: Further Evidence of Validity," Perceptual and Motor Skills ,31: 786.

Schloss, Ira (1981), "Chickens and Pickles," Journal of Advertising Research , 21 (December), 47-49.

Schuchardt, H. (1897), "Keltorom. frog-, frogn- Lautsymbolik",Zeitschrift für Romanische Phonologie 21: 199-205.

Sereno, Joan A. (1994), "Phonosyntactics", in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.), Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Silverstein, Michael (1994), "Relative Motivation inDenotational and Indexical Sound Symbolism of Wasco-Wishram Chinookan",in Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nicols and John J. Ohala, (eds.),Sound Symbolism, Cambridge University Press.

Simone, Raffaele (1990), "The Body of Language. The Paradigm of Arbitrariness and the Paradigm of Substance", in A Amacherand R. Engler (eds.), Présence de Saussure 121-41, Droz, Genève.

Smithers, G. V. (1954), "Some English Ideophones", Archivum Linguisticum 6: 73-111.

Steiner, Rudolf (1942), Finding and Formulating the Cosmic Word, Anthroposophic Press,Hudson, NY.

Steiner, Rudolf (1970), Geisteswissenschaftliche Sprachbetrachtungen, Dornach.

Steiner, Rudolf (1982), The Alphabet, Mercury Press, Spring Valley, NY.

Steiner, Rudolf (1984), The Realm of Language, Mercury Press, Spring Valley, NY.

Steiner, Rudolf (1985), Eurhythmy as Visible Speech, Rudolf Steiner Press, London.

Steiner, Rudolf (1995), The Genius of Language, Anthroposophic Press, Hudson, NY.

Tanz, Christine (1971), "Sound Symbolism in Words for Proximity and Distance", Language and Speech 14: 266-276.

Tarte, Robert D. and L. S. Barrett (1971), "Phonetic Symbolism in Adult Native Speakers of English", Language and Speech17: 158-168.

Tarte, Robert D. (1974), "Phonetic Symbolism in Adult Native Speakers of Czech", Language and Speech 174: 87-94.

Thorndike, E. L. (1944), "Euphony and Cacophony of English Words and Sounds", Quarterly Journal of Speech 30: 201-7.

Thorndike, E. L. (1945), "The Association of Certain Sounds with Pleasant and Unpleasant Meanings", Psychological Review 52: 143-149.

Thun, Nils (1963), "Reduplicative Words in English: A Study of Formations of the Types tick-tock, hurly-burly, and shilly-shally", PhD dissertation, Uppsala University.

Traunmüller, Hartmut (1996), "Sound Symbolismin Deictic Words", TMH-QDSR 2, Royal Institute of Technology, Speech Music and Hearing, 147-150.

Tsien-Lee, M. (1969), "Sound and Meaning in Chinese Language: a Study in Phonetic Symbolism", Psychologica Belgica 9(1): 47-58.

Tsur, Reuven (1992), What Makes Sound Patterns Expressive?, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

Tsuru, Shigeto (1934), "Sound and Meaning", ms.on file with Gordon W. Allport, Harvard U..

Uhlenbeck, E. M. (1950), "The Structure of the Javanese Morpheme", Lingua 2: 239-270.

Uhlenbeck, E. M. (1971), "Peripheral Verb Categories with Emotive-Expressive or Onomatopoeic Value in Modern Javanese",Travaux linguistiques de Prague 4: 145-156.

Ultan, R. (1971), "A Case of Sound Symbolism in Konkow", in J. Sawyer (ed.), Studies in American Indian Languages, Berkeley,CA, 295-301.

Ultan, R. (1978), "Size sound symbolism", in Joseph Greenberg, (ed), Universals of Human Language, 2: Phonology, Stanford University Press.

The Upanishads, translated by F. Max MÜller, Dover Publications, NY.

Veldi, Enn (1988), English-Estonian Parallels in Onomatopoeia(Candidate's dissertation, now equivalent to a Ph.D.), University of Tartu,Estonia

Veldi, Enn (1989), "O nekotorykh chertakh germanskogo proiskhozhdenija v zvukoizobrazitel'noj leksike estonskogo jazyka", Problemy fonosemantiki, Moskva, 35-36.

Veldi, Enn (1990), "Some Aspects of Cross-Linguistic Similarities and Differences in Onomatopoeia", Linguistic Fiesta, Festschrift for Professor Hisao Kakehi's Sixtieth Birthday, Tokyo: Kuroshio:307-318.

Veldi, Enn (1994), "Onomatopoeic Words in Bilingual Dictionaries (with Focus on English-Estonian and Estonian-English). Dictionaries", Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America, 15: 74-85.

Voronin, Stanislav V.(1969), English Onomatopes: Types and Structure, (in Russian: Anglijskijeonomatopy: Tipy i strojenije, Avtoref. kand. diss.), Leningrad.

Voronin, Stanislav V. (1982), Fundamentals of Phonosemantics.(in Russian: Osnovy fonosemantiki - monograph), Leningrad.

Voronin, Stanislav V.(1987), "The Phonemotype: A New Linguistic Notion", in Proceedings XIth ICPhS. The Eleventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. vol. 4. Tallinn.

Voronin, Stanislav V. (1988), "The Complementarity Principle and the Functional Specialization of the Sign" (in Russian), in:Tezisy IX V sesojuznogo simpoziuma po psixolingvistikei teorii kommunikatsii, Moscow.

Voronin, Stanislav V. (1990), "On the Method of Phonosemantic Analysis." (in Russian), in Lingvometodicheskije aspekty semantiki i pragmatiki teksta. Kursk.

Voronin, Stanislav V. (1990), "Onomatopoeia. Sound Symbolism", (in Russian: Zvukopodrazhanije. Zvukosimvolizm),in Lingvisticheskij entsiklopedicheskij slovar, Moscow.

Voronin, Stanislav V. (1991), "Evolution of the Linguistic Sign in Phylogenesis." (in Russian), in Tezisy dokladov XVsesojuznogo simpoziuma po psixolingvistike i teorii kommunikatsii, Moscow.

Wallis, John (1653), Grammatica linguae anglicanae,Oxford, Hamburg.

Wallis, John (1972), A Grammar of the English Language, J. A. Kemp (trans.), Longman, London (the translation omits Ch. 14 containing an extensive discussion of phonosemantics).

Waugh, Linda. (1980), "The Poetic Function and the Nature of Language", Poetry Today 2: 57-82.

Waugh, Linda (1984), "Some Remarks on the Nature ofthe Linguistic Sign", in The Sign and its Systems, (ed.) J. Pelc et. al., 389-438, Berlin,Mouton.

Waugh, Linda (1987), "On the Sound Shape of Language, Mediacy and Immediacy", in Roman Jakobson, Selected Writings VIII 255-271, Berlin, Mouton.

Waugh, Linda (1994), "Degrees of Iconicity in the Lexicon", Journalof Pragmatics.

Waugh, Linda (1996), "Iconicity and the Lexicon",Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague: 2, John Benjamins, Amsterdam.

Waugh, Linda and Madeleine Newfield (1989), "Iconicity and the Morpheme", Lingua.

Waugh, Linda R. & Madeleine Newfield (1995),"Iconicity in the Lexicon and its Relevance for a Theory of Morphology", in: Landsberg, Marge E., (ed.) (1995), Syntacticiconicity and linguistic freezes. The human dimension, Berlin -New York., 189-221.

Weiss, Jonathan H. (1964), "Phonetic Symbolism Reexamined", Psychology Bulletin 61: 454-458.

Weiss, Jonathan H. (1964), "The Role of Stimulus Meaningfulness in the Phonetic Symbolism Response", Journal of General Psychology 72: 97-106.

Wescott, Roger (1965), "Speech Tempo and the Phonemics of Bini", Journal of African Languages 4:3, reprinted in Soundand Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1970), "Types of Vowel Alternationin English", Word, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1971), "Labiovelarity and Derogation in English", American Speech, New York, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1971), "Linguistic Iconism", Language, 47. 416-428, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1973), "Tonal Icons in Bini", Studies in African Linguistics 4: 197-205, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1974), "Types of Apophony in Proto-Speech",in Wescott (1974), reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1974), "Word Chains in English",Verbatim 3, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1974), "Word Pains from Word Chains",Verbatim 7, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1975), "Nicknames in Bini and English", Forum Linguisticum 2: 1, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1975), "Tonal Iconicity in Bini Color Terms", African Studies 34: 185-91, reprinted in Soundand Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1977), "'Ooglification' in American English Slang", Verbatim (Feb), reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger (1977), "Ideophones in Bini and English",Forum Linguisticum, reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1978), "'Zazzification' in American English Slang", Forum linguisticum (December), reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger S. (1979), "Lexical Polygenesis: Words as Resultants of Multiple Linguistic Pressures", Proceedings of the 5th. LACUS Forum 1978, Edited by Wolfgang WÖlck and Paul L. Garvin, Hornbeam Pressm Columbia, S.C., reprinted in Sound and Sense.

Wescott, Roger W. (1980), Sound and Sense. Linguistic Essays on Phonosemic Subjects, Jupiter Press, Lake Bluff.

Wescott, Roger W. (1983), "Consonantal Apophony inEnglish", in Frederick B. Agard, Gerald Kelly, Adam Makkai and Valerie Bekker Makkai, Essays in Honor of Charles F. Hockett, E. J. Brill, Leiden, in Sound and Sense.

Westermann, Diedrich (1927), "Laut, Ton und Sinn inwest-afrikanischen Sudan-Sprachen", Festschrift Meinhof: sprachwissenschaftlicheund andere Studien, Kommissionsverlag von L. Friederichsen & Co.,Hamburg.

Westermann, Diedrich (1930), A Study of the Ewe Language, London.

Westermann, Diedrich (1937), "Laut und Sinn in einigenwest-afrikanischen Sudan-Sprachen", Archiv für vergleichende Phonetik, 1: 154-172, 193-211.

Whissel,Cynthia (1981), "Pleasure and Activation Revisited: Dimensions Underlying Semantic Response to Fifty Randomly Selected 'Emotional' Words", Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53:871-874.

Whissel, Cynthia (1999), "Phonosymbolism and the emotional nature of sounds: Evidence of the preferential use of particular sounds in texts of differing emotional tone", Perceptual and Motor Skills, 89: 19-48.

Whorf, Benjamin Lee (1936), "The Punctual and Segmentative Aspects of Verbs in Hopi", Language 12: 127-31, reprinted in Language, Thought and Reality.

Wilkinson, R. J. (1936), "Onomatopoeia in Malay", Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 14: iii.

Wissemann, Heinz (1954), Untersuchungen zur Onomatopöie,Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg.

Woodbury, Anthony C. (1987), "Meaningful Phonological Processes: A Consideration of Central Alaskan Yupik Eskimo Prosody", Language 63.

Woodworth, Nancy L. (1991), "Sound Symbolism in Proximal and Distal Forms", Linguistics 29: 273-299 .

Zhuravlev, A.P. (1974), Fonetiheskoe Znahenie, Leningrad University Press.

Zhuravlev, A.P. (1982), "Poetic Subconsciousness and Communicative Effect", (in Russian), in Tezisy VII Vsesojuznogo simpoziuma po psixolingvistike i teorii kommunikatsii, Moscow.