Northern Paiute Subanalysis

Arie Poldervaart
Summer Institute of Linguistics
Friends of Uto-Aztecan Conference(FUAC), 1989

copyright 2001
by Arie Poldervaart
all rights reserved

 

 


I. INTRODUCTION

Words in the Northern Paiute Language are formed by combining one syllable morphemes. The exception to this is the suffixes which will be explained later in this paper. The meaning of each morpheme is determined by its position in the word.

There are at least 23 different prefix and stem slots. The same syllable will take on different meanings in different slots. (In many instances, it appears that there is a historical relationship between the meanings in different slots).

Evidence indicates that at the time of white contact, many if not most speakers could freely invent words by using this system. The Indian doctors used the system more than others, which is one reason they needed interpreters. All speakers can still fully use the first 8 prefix slots and the suffix slots. But at the present time only a few older speakers are aware of the other prefix slots and the stem slots. Therefore this paper is basically an internal reconstruction of the language at the time of white contact.

The orthography used is the one chosen by the Yerington Paiute Elder's committee, which is:
 

 bilabial

 alveolar

 affricate

 velar

 labiovelar

 back

lenis

 b

f

tz

g

gw

 
voiced fortis

 bb

dd

dds

gg

ggw

 
voiceless fortis

p

t

ts

k

kw

 
lenis nasal

m

n

     

nng

fortis nasal

mm

nn

     

nng

h and glottal          

h '

lenis spirant  

z

 

     
fortis spirant  

s

       
semivowel  

y

   

w

 

 

Vowels

 

  short

 long

high front

 e

ee

high central

u

uu

high back

oo

ooo

low central

a

aa

low back

o

o

Also there are special symbols for two of the dipthongs:

a-e is written as i
a-oo is written as ow.

This study was done in Yerington, NV. It is based on data supplied by Russell Dick and Ed Williams of Yerington. Also assistance from Art and Ethyl Cavanaugh of Fort McDermitt, NV is acknowledged.

II. THE SLOTS

The slots listed here apply particularly to the verbs of Paiute. A slot is listed as a prefix slot if its fillers cannot be the final morpheme of a verb. Or if the fillers can be the final morpheme of a verb, they are listed as stem slots.

Abbreviations are given for each of these slots in parentheses. The slots are listed in the order of their occurrence.

PREFIX SLOTS

1. Want to do verb action. (W) This slot has two fillers: soo- `want to do just mentally (ie don't talk about it)' and ne- `want and then speak'
2. UNSP. (U) One filler, tu-, converts a transitive verb into an intransitive verb. Demonstratives and pronouns are other fillers.
3. PASSIVE (P) Only one filler, na-, makes a verb passive. Reflexive is a special case meaning of the passive.
4. Make action happen. (M) Has two fillers, tsa- `force' and ma- `make'.
5. RCPR (R) Has one filler, na- which makes the verb reciprocal.

The following three prefix slots have been referred to as one group as instrumental prefixes. Because often several of these co-occur in one word, they must be considered three separate slots. Several examples of this co-occurrence are:

pa dda wa 'ya
waterL feetI go-through push `feet pedalling in water'

pa ko ma e
waterI faceO point REAL `splash water on face'

Often one syllable will occur in all three slots with similiar meanings.

6. Locational (L) Location of the verb action.
7. Instrumental (I) An instrument used to do the verb action.
8. Objective (O) Shows the object of the verb action.
9. Causative (C) Cause the verb action to happen.
10. Adjective (ADJ) Adjective meaning.
11. Quantifier (Q) Quantifier meaning.
12. Adverbial (ADV) Fillers have adverbial meaning.
13. Objective direction (OD) Many of the fillers resemble postpositions.

STEM SLOTS

The following eight slots follow a pattern of causative action followed by resultant action. Note that the slots from these two parts are symmetrical. Anyone of these slots can occur by itself. But the descriptions help explain the relationship when several of these slots do co-occur.

14. Causative action direction (CAD)
15. Causative action (CA)
16. Causative action manner (CAM)
17. Causative action state (CAS)
18. Resultant action direction (RAD)
19. Resultant action (RA)
20. Resultant action manner (RAM)
21. Resultant action state (RAS)
22. Objective state (OS) Shows if action is on an object.
23. Action termination (AT) Shows if verb action is terminated or reversed.

III. THE MORPHEMES

The morphemes are listed by syllable, and then give the slot and meaning. Then the example numbers refer to example numbers which contain the morpheme. The syllable is written in lenis form. If a morpheme is preceded by an *, the morpheme is recognized by present day native speakers. If a ? is listed for slot, there is insufficient co-occurrence with other morphemes to assign a slot.

Due to vowel harmony, a morpheme with an oo is often pronounced o. In this list, they will be listed with oo, although in the examples, they will be listed with o.

ba I `water' 27,89,101,120,123,153,167,309
ba L `water' 125,227,296,310,319,346
ba O `water' 105,106,116,118,121,122,124,180,181,285,295, 315

The above three morphemes can mean wet such as wet ground, blood etc.

*ba Q `volume' 43
*ba OS `action realized' 340
ba ADJ `high, big' 115,230,255,266,
*ba CA `hit, slap' 2,48,103,104,160,170,172,409
*ba RAM `pick up' 110,111,112,182
*ba RAS `cover surface' 16,26,32,68,114,139,230,233,248,380
ba CAD `together' 20
ba ? `call' 82
*ba RA `break, destroy' 100,107,109,113,219,407

be I `hips, back part of body' 129,286
be L `hips, back part of body' 54,115,198
be O `hips, back part of body'
*be ADJ `good' 72,135,397
*be CAD `split, come apart' 72,127,174,188,239
*be C `initiate, start' 58,108,245,308
be OD `back, bottom, inside' 38,388
*be RAM `horizontal force, motion or position' 61,62,75,125, 130,131,132,133,134,208,235,281,349
*be CA `shake, wiggle, be active' 93
*be CA `drink' 128,276,295,348
*be ADJ `sweet' 226
*be OS `live in(animate), lie in (inanimate)' 251,252,253, 254,255,256,257,258,266,309,344,385
*be CA `buzz' 403,404
buu I `blood'(is a combination of bu `skin' and u `next to surface' 136,138
*bu I `skin, fur' 137,272,341
*bu OS `cause to happen' 59,140,142,167,200,271,320, 321,370,371,386
*bu CAM `work on surface' 83,368
bu U `it, him' 119,329
*bu RAS `go through, across' 122,153,324,367,406
*bu RAS `change' 400

bo L `road' 385
*bo CA `through hole' 95,143,241
bo RA `write' 119
bo RA `cut or make trail' 144,243,279,280,393

boo L `eye'
boo I `eye' 145
boo O `eye' 150
*boo CAS `come out' 4,286,313
boo CA `heal, rescue' 22,30,148,149,151
boo RA `see' 23,213
*boo CA `twist, spin, curvature or rotation viewed from outside the curve' 40,41,45
boo CAS `cover, protection' 123,146,147,185,224,386
*boo CA `mouth breath' 215,312
*boo CAD `back and forth' 212,405

da U `me and you' 391
da I `foot, leg' 47,54,57,81,103,107,172,186,187,192, 194,259,302,313
da L `foot, leg' 373
da O `foot, leg' 191
da RAD `away' 130,328
*da CA `push through' 1,97,142,169,370
*da CA `light, heat, appear' 108,122,162,229,308,349,368,393
*da RAS `cover' 34,379
*da CAS `lift, raise' 86,256,371,389
*da RA `break, divide' 95,186,380,384,385
*da CAD `into' 4,31,60,119,167,183,332,348,384,408

*dee RA `hold up, exalt' 117,271,289
*de RAS `shoot out, go out' 87,193,194,294
de U `us (OBJ)'

*duu O `self (singular)' 119
*du I `mouth' 248,278,343
*duu ADJ `small' 53,231
du CA `possession, ownership, have' 350,351,352,376,390,391
*du CAM `hold, raise up' 238
du U `UNSP' 1,14,15,51,65,80,119,121,149,154,174,183, 188,189,193,195,196,199,212,213,232,255,270,369,
*du ADV `excess, completely' 37,49,50,74,353,360
*du I `dirt'
*du O `dirt' 75,177,243,326,383
*du L `dirt, ground' 344
*du,yu CA `believe' 178,353
*du CAS `remove' 111,351

do O `hard object, short object, hoof' 372,373
do I `fist, shoulder, stick, tractor, short hard OBJ, hoof' 76,92,104,190,236
do CAM `push hard' 120,406
do O `hole' 1,50,252 (has long o)
*do CAD `up and out' 10,163,197,199,270,406
*do RA `lift' 246,247

*dooo ? `stoop' 398
doo ADJ `black, dark' 39,164,223,228,347,402
doo OD `under' 287
*doo CA `scatter, separate, disperse' 83,121,132,200,202,394
doo OD `through' 110,112,341
*doo RAD `all over' 235,279,300,319,333,345,346,382
*doo CAM `grind' 241,336,337
doo RA `make' 308

tza M `force' 9,71,109,126,133,158b,406
tza I `hand with fingers' 44,45,110,154,155,159,166, 217,371
tza L `hand with fingers'
tza O `hand with fingers'
*tza CA `hold' 8,17,24,61,62,65,96,111,140,145,153,158a,163,168,197,199,328
*tza RA `kill, destroy, disfigure' 2,33,92,156,160,162, 164,165,179
*tza CA `remove, take apart' 51,157

tze I `finger, stick, sharp point' 5,40,42,49,67,111,112, 143,169,176,247
tze L `finger, sharp point'
tze O `finger, sharp point'
*tze CAM `poke, emerge, stab' 5,18,78,103,118,119,128, 131,133,144,150,171,173,175,227,246,295,370
*tze RA `noise made by hitting' 48,60,104,119,170,172
*tze ? `past time'
tze AT DIM 245,304,312,327
*tze ADV `really ' 231

*tzu ? `push away, wipe' 11

tzo I `head'
tzo L `head'
tzo O `head' 16,25
*tzo RAD `back and forth' 76,177

*tzoo CA `push down, squeeze' 12,14,68,77,85,98,99,167, 177,180,181,182,364

*ga L `neck'
*ga I `neck' 201
*ga O `neck' 203,250
ga CA `gnaw, eat, break apart, cut' 52,183,189,195,205, 235,261,332,343,361
ga ? `trash, dispose of' 297
*ga CAS `sound' 88,155,184,190,192,204,291,388
*ga OS `change shape' 1,16,77,98,99,120,144,156,210,211,217,407
ga RA `go' 28,76
ga CAD `have' 228,390,391,394
ga L `mountain with cliffs' 287

*ge Q `thin' 232,384
*ge RA `cut, open up' 140,142,177
ge RAS `give' 6,21,203
*ge RAS `get rid of' 31,169,171,243
ge CA `come toward' 73,90,176,316

gu L `teeth'
gu I `teeth' 205,320
gu O `teeth'
*gu CAM `grasp' 8,24,237,352
*gu RA `support' 236,237,238
gu ? `friction'
*gu ADJ `different' 66

go L `front, face'
go I `front, face' 409
go O `front, face' 89
*go CA `twist, curvature or rotation viewed from the inside of the curve' 13,47,115,253,264
*go CA `break, crack' 107,109,358,367,372,373,377
*go RA `slide' 306,319,345,346,377
*go ? `sex'

goo L `fire, heat'
goo I `fire, heat' 200,226,298
goo O `fire, heat'
goo CAD `above' 2,207,324
goo CA `bury,dig' 196,283,310
goo I `dust'
goo O `dust' 86
goo ADJ `noisy' 170,206,239

*wa CA `spread around' 69,262,321,322,383
wa RAM `remove' 1,87,97,193,194,210,211,357
*wa ADV `all during a time period' 318
*wa CAM `cry, express emotion' 96,267,269,330,334
*wa RAD `go through, be in' 120,167,206,315,342,356
wa Q `two' 208,274,323
*wa CAM `recognize' 244,308,329
wa RAM `look for' 292,293,294,345,346
wa ? `far' 335

*we CAD `change path, opposite directions' 12,13,44,90,222,229,319
*we RAD `come down, come out, remove' 34,114,124,129, 158a,158b,201,270,273,284,287,303,366,398,399
*we CAS `say' 21,278,355
*we CAS `hit' 80,113,161
we CAM `wiggle' 296
*we RA `restore' 263,318

wu I `male sex organ'
wu I `length of object like stick, rope' 12,79,156,171,184,204,364,370
wu O `length of object'
*wu I `wind' 106,146,147,157
wu CAD `go into' 8,16,59,166,195,367
*wu CA `slip' 31,87,127,186,194,209
*wu RA `move, carry' 36,58,71,93,154,371,378
*wu RAD `up and down' 159

wo L `head, top part' 253
wo I `head, top part' 280
wo O `head, top part' 188,189
*wo CA `make noise' 250,317
*wo CAD `come into, against' 250
wo CA `make line' 63,70,217,311,379

*ha RAD `come out, remove' 39,136,139,146,265,268,321,334, 351,359,374,386
*ha CAM `be, make, do' 125,148,274,305,309,353
*ha OS `often, always' 339,341
ha U `QUESTION, what'

*he CA `loosen' 270
*he RA `attack, come out, interact' 59,102,147,202,215,278,317
he O `something' 91,276
*he RA `physical sensation such as sight, smell' 224,226,227

*hu I `breeze' 69,175
*hu RAM `cause travel, cause movement' 272,301,302

*ho ? `related, RCPR'
*ho CAS `fail' 3

hoo CAM `dig, go down' 15,84,282,283,290
hoo OS `flow, go smoothly' 32,85,273,287
hoo ADV `smooth' 403
hoo ADJ `low'
*hooo CAM `make layer' 218,219,223

*ma M `make' 76,116,308,330
*ma L `hand (palm)' 360,372
*ma I `hand (palm)' 11,13,41,48,56,60,68,70,78,80,82,83,86,87,88,260,328,382
*ma O `hand (palm)' 77,348
ma C `causative' 22,51,62,63,64,65,71,74,81,154,174,242,264,302,326,352,357,358,363,365
ma CAM `scare' 18,301
*ma RA `taste' 52,53,66,408
ma CAM `touch, feel' 55,56,57,59,67
ma RA `point (eg. point a gun, if the gun is shot, the ma is
followed by -e(realized), come against' 3,89,358,398,399
*ma AT `cover, close' 49,50,54,74
*ma RA `go' 73
*ma CA `squeeze' 79
ma OS `with'
ma OD `on' 289
ma,maa U middle demonstrative 392

mee ? `say'
*mee CA `stand, be contained in a volume' 323,324,325,326,327
*me RA `go, be active' 29,328
*me RA `transfer, give' 91
*me Q `and others' 390,391

*mu CAS `turn, change' 10,92,265,350,402
*mu RAS `kind, type' 94,261,387
mu U `you(PL), them'

mo ? `live'

moo ADJ `first'
moo CA `lead, shoot' 101,102,347
*moo RA `old, wear out, run out' 6
moo L `facial features'
moo I `facial features' 7,46,96,100,281,282,310,336,338
moo O `facial features' 98,99
moo CAM `walk, move' 404
*moo ? `twist'
moo ? `cover' 242
moo ? `middle' 395,396
moo CAS `see, sense' 397,398,399,404

na P PASSIVE, REFLEXIVE 2,3,4,5,6,18,24,62,66,119, 140,142,151,159,170,185,245,246,275,297,308,330,334,352,365,366,371
na R RECIPROCAL 20,21,62,64,161,330,359,392,395
na CAM `stick out, be visible' 7,27,277,291,357
na ADJ `male' 304
na CAS `grown, growing' 174
*na OD `break away from into opposing area, opposite group' 161,358,359,363,364,366
*na CA `accompany' 355,356
*na CAS `fasten around, surround' 8,12,13,14,17,19,83, 117,242,244,262,303
*na RAM `remove' 9,10,15,81,153,174,284,307,360,362 ne W `want' 293

ne I `speak' 21,22,334
*ne OD `cover with' 346,401
ne ? `say' 275,354
*ne RAS `do, be in state' 22,23,329
*ne AT `release' 98,198
*ne RA `contact, pile up' 9,24,86

nu U `first person singular' 94,390
nu O `person' 30
*nuu O `self(PL)' 26,27,37
*nu CA `hit' 25
nu I `any kind of instrument' 26
*nu CAM `stand' 28,29,31,32

no ADV `for a while'
no I `egg' 34
no Q `anything, all' 84,260 (long o)

noo CAM `roll, spin, circle, round' 37,40,41,44,45,251,256,363
noo CAS `carry, move' 33,35,36,38,42,46,47,105,134,285,396

*nga RA `make noise' 267,305

*nga RAS `move, fluid motion, move through' 5,78,118, 127, 159, 199, 214, 257, 280, 305, 311, 312, 339, 340, 341
*nga AT `rest, restore' 213,340

*nge RAS `hold together, contact, interract, go out' 70,88,163,168,192,204,259,269

*ngo RAS `go down, bring down' 234,279

sa CA `cook, heat liquid' 19,400
sa RAM `spread, separate, scatter' 54,106,135,137,187,207,221,285,335,381
*sa ADJ `wet' 254,325,326
*sa CAM `insert' 143,176,220
*sa CA `smash'
*sa CA `bark' 288
*sa ? `always'

*se ADJ `flat' 384,385
*se CAS `make flat' 26,97,200,217,225
*se RA `spread' 79,101,222,286,342,361

su ADJ `cold'
su Q `one' 289
*su CA `spread out' 236,249,405
su RA `numb' 259
*su CAD `contact edge' 257,259,377

soo W `want' 292
soo I `think' 308,397
soo C `cause mentally' 330
*soo O `pulp' 198,277
*soo CAS `make pulp' 337,338
*soo CAS `humiliate' 357
*soo CAS `get rid of, consume' 126,298,299,341,366,401
*soo RA `pile up' 365,366
*soo RAS `again' 213
*soo CAM `breathe' 4,206,339,340
*soo ? `bless'

*a Q `a bunch' 388,389
*a OD `inside' 389,395
*a AT `completion of motion' 21,299
*a OS `action on object' 54,115,122,123,134,165,203, 242,245,247,268,275,284,289,368,379
*a RAS `activity' 11,35,36,38,72,75,79,90,96,100,101, 132,154,183,187, 195,205,235, 277,365,389,397,402, 403
aa L `forehead'
aa O `forehead'
aa I `forehead'
a O `someone, something' 53,179,407
*a CAD `come out(partial action), go from one to another' 14,80,81,161,331,375

*e RAD `go through' 4,174,209,220,320,331,338,393,400
*e AT `do action until completion' 37,40,41,42,44,45,46, 48,63,126,140,142,150, 206,239, 290,291,305,357,363 ,406
*e ADJ `big, much' 288,322,378
*e Q `strip' 225,306,307,409
e CAD `at edge' 178,254,328
e RAS `action realized' 3,43,47,51,65,82,89,103,104,116, 121,137,138,145,157,170, 172, 186, 191,197,292, 293,330,356,362,377,404,407
e RA `maim, hurt' 64,369,370,381
e U `my, here'

u U `you(1)' 387
u CA `sleep' 263
u CAM `finish use' 361
*u OD `beneath surface, next to surface, to or from surface, from person' 136,138,177,278,354,355,383

*o L `internal body' 59,268,331,333,369
*o ADJ `brown' 374,375,376
*o ? `small particles'
oo,o U `him, there' 178

*ya RA `bump, push, go with effort' 25,212,220,221
*ya CAS `wear out' 116,138,210,211
*ya CA `say' 155,184,190
yaa U `near DEM'

*yu CA `move' 55,118
*yu RA `push down' 233,258

*yoo CAD `rise, up and down' 18,173,249
yoo CA `warm' 191,218,234
yoo RAM `go fast, jerky' 35,42,46,214,215
*yoo RAM `repetitive action' 38,63

 

IV. INITIAL CONSONANT

It has been shown that there were 5 consonant sets in proto-Numic (Nichols, 1974). Three of these show up in the Yerington dialect as the three sets of stops. The other two (preglottalization and preaspiration) show up as consonant clusters (glottal stop or h is the first consonant, n,m,ng,w,y or h (h only after glottal stop) are the only possiblities for the second consonant).

The first consonant of a morpheme can alternate between the different consonant sets depending on the preceding morpheme. For example, in

nobe-ggwi
house in `in the house'

-w begins with voiced fortis, while

motel-wi
motel in `in the motel'

the -wi begins with lenis. The postposition -wi has the same meaning in both examples. The only difference is that the two words condition different initial consonants in the morpheme which follows. In the past, attempts to find the basis for this variation have failed. This is because the variation functions slightly differently in different slots. Without an awareness of the actual morphemes and their slots, this feature of Numic languages has been very confusing.

The meanings of the five consonant sets are:

lenis singular number or fractional number, one time action
voiceless fortis plural number or whole number, multiple action
voiced fortis indefinite number (either singular or plural), indefinite amount of action
preglottalized incremental action
preaspiration action through an object, almost completed action

The meaning of the preaspirated is somewhat uncertain because its occurrence in Northern Paiute is rare. The difference between voiced fortis and preglottalized seems to to slight, and these two sets may be at least partially merged. For example, nn (which could be associated with either voiceless fortis or voiced fortis) is occasionally allophonic with 'n.

The exact meaning of these different comsonant sets varies with different slots and morphemes. A few examples are:

pa yoo ddso gga -ggute (395)
water up&down back&forth change-shape CAUS `brine'

takes lenis because because it refers to a small amount of water such as a bucket full.

pa nnu na -du (396)
water self stick-out er `lake'

takes fortis because it refers to a whole body of water (PL). Another example shows this as voiceless fortis.

(teepu) pa ta tso pa (397)
earth water into push-down destroy `whole earth flooded'

pa ggwe nnoo noo e (398)
water change-direction spin move through `whirlpool'

pa dda wa 'ya (399)
water feet go-through push `treading water, feet making pedalling motion in water'

 

The last two examples show an indefinite amount of water. That is, the action is the same whether it is in a whole body of water such as a lake, river, swamp, puddle or in a portion of water, eg a bathtub or swimming pool etc).

For some morphemes such as ta- `foot' or ma- `hand', the singular/plural rule is reversed.

ma ta tse (400)
hand into hitting-noise `hit with one hand'

ma da tse (401)
hand into hitting-noise `clap hands (both hands)'

An example comparing the action type morphemes:

ta wa ga (402)
push-through remove change-shape `punch one hole'

One occurrence of punching through produces lenis (w) in the consonant which follows. Multiple occurrences produce voiceless fortis in:

ta ke (403)
push-through remove-material `make holes(PL)'

And a gradual wearing out process produces preglottalization.

yaa 'wa ka (404)
wear-out remove change-shape `dip, puddle'

Another example is:

ko da be (405)
crack divide horizontal `break'

Here ko is followed by lenis because it is a partial crack.

ko ta be (406)
crack divide horizontal `break clean off'

 

Here ko is followed by voiceless fortis because the crack is total. An example showing preaspiration is:

o ha (407)
brown come-out `yellow'

vs. o a (408)
brown come-out `orange'

The preaspiration shows that more of the brown came out. There are many cases in Northern Paiute where the initial consonant does not vary. Fortis is often used to show possession (liljeblad, 1971). In verb suffixes, the initial consonant distinguishes different suffixes (Poldervaart, 1981). There may be other causes also.

 

V LENGTH

Normally in Northern Paiute, the length and stress of a word occur on the second syllable of the word. Therefore the words which have length and stress on the first syllable are an exception. There are three reasons for this occurring:

1. Some morphemes are long (eg duu `self(1)', nuu `self(PL)' etc). When these occur in the first syllable, they cause it to be long. In other positions, they have no effect on length.

2. It is possible for the syllable to be two morphemes. That is, the first morpheme contains a consonant and a vowel, and the second morpheme contains only a vowel. It is possible that the long morphemes all occur because of this reason.

3. During the course of history, a pattern such as C1V1C2V1 has sometimes been reduced to C1V1V1. Since this paper is based on a synchronic analysis of Northern Paiute, this cause is outside its scope. Therefore diachronic analysis needs to be done to fully understand length.

 

VI. HOMONYMS

Homonyms in Northern Paiute are caused by the same syllables functioning in different slots and thus having different meanings. For example:

409 tsa ha nne
force make be-in-state `drive'
M CAM RAS
410 tsa ha nne
hand make be-in-state `handle'
I CAM RAS
411 tsa ha nne
hold make be-in-state `take care of'
CA CAM RAS
412 tsa ha nne
force remove be-in-state `to undo'
M RA RAS
Another example:
413 ma ka
CAUS eat `feed'
C CA
414 ma ka
CAUS have `give'
C CAD

 

VII SUFFIXES AND COMPOUNDING

The Northern Paiute language forms compound words fairly readily. It does this mainly when the speaker would like to use several fillers from the same slot.

naka-soobbedaggwatoo
hear understand `understand what is heard'

When a compounding is sufficiently productive, it becomes a verb suffix. It will then be a suffix in the earliest suffix slot, and previously formed suffixes will occur in later slots. To show this, the first verb suffix slot contains either -gu BENEFACTIVE of -ggu CAUSATIVE. -gu only occurs on transitive verbs making them bitransitive. -ggu only occurs with intransitive verbs making them transitive. This complementary distribution shows the formation of the slot is recent. All other (older) slots no longer have this kind of complementary distribution (but some of them probably did earlier). So verb suffixes are often multisyllable morphemes corresponding to earlier compounds. Also many of them are still the same as present day verbs.

Postpositions are basically noun suffixes which developed in a manner similiar to the verb suffixes. Only some of them are still recognizable in the prefix and stem slots.

 

VIII. PARTS OF SPEECH

The main differences in different parts of speedh are the order in the clause, and the types of suffixes that they take. Verbs can take suffixes from over 20 different slots. Nouns cannout take any of these verb suffixes etc. But the subanalysis shows that verbs, nouns, adjectives, and sometimes adverbs and pronouns are verbal in their actual meaning. Demonstratives also have their own sets of suffixes so they are generally independent of the verb structure. However, demonstratives do occasionally show up as verbs. When this occurs, they occupy the U slot.

 

IX REDUPLICATION

A word can be made plural by repeating the first syllable. The second occurrence of the syllable usually have a fortis consonant.

bbe-bbeawabe
RDP old woman `old women'

In the Yerington dialect, reduplication is fairly rare. It occurs much more often in other dialects.

 

X. DIALECT DIFFERENCES

The differences between numbers of consonant sets has been studied by many people. These differences do not present problems to native speakers. There are many other differences where different combinations of morphemes are used to express the same idea. In McDermitt,

ta po sa
into go-thru-hole insert `to nail'
CAD CA CAM

while in Yerington, it is expressed by

to tsa be
hole hold horizontal `to nail'
O CA RAM

In Yerington, taposa means `to thread a needle'. This type of difference causes native speakers many problems. But the morphemes and slots are the same. The morphemes and slots seem to also work in closely related languages also. For example the Mono word toyabe `mountain'

to ya be
hard wear-out location `mountain' (area with hard worn-
O CAS OS out areas)

is a word not recognized by Paiute speakers, but still follows Paiute rules.

 

XI PRESENT DAY WORD FORMATION

At the present time, only a few older speakers can form words. And then not all slots are controlled. In Fort McDermitt, I saw Art and Ethyl Cavanaugh create a word for `eyelid' pobo`a. They combined the words:

poo e
eye REAL `eye'
O RAS

and boo a
cover OBJ `covering'
CAS OS

to form po bo a
eye protect OBJ `eyelid'
O CAS OS

They realized that they could not say pooebooa (because the RAS slot occurs after CAS), so they dropped out the e. The o's were changed to oo due to vowel harmony. I checked this word with many people, and none of them ever had heard it. This confirmed that the word was invented on the spot.

Pete Snapp was a very well known speaker in Fort McDermitt. Among others, he worked a great deal with Omer Stewart and Sven Liljeblad. I have had a number of people tell me that Pete made up a lot of words that no-one else understood. On the basis of this, I suspect that he was the last speaker that fully understood the word formation process.

 

XI. EXAMPLES

1. tu ddo ta wa ga -noo
UNSP hole punch-thru remove change-shape INST `drill'
U O CA RAM OS
2. na goo ba tsa
PASS over hit kill `scorpion'
P CAD CA RA
3. na ho ma e -'hoo
PASS fail point REAL PNT `miss a shot'
P CAS RA RAS
4. na ta soo po 'e -'hoo
PASS into breathe come-out thru PNT `let out puff'
P CAD CAM CAS RAD
5. na tze tse nnga
PASS stick poke move `stuff things into with stick'
P I CAM RAS
6. na moo gge
PASS run-out give `forfeit, lose game'
P RA RAS
7. moo na -punne
face-features stick-out for-while `head sticks out'
I CAM
8. wu tsa ku na
go-into hold grasp fasten-around `tie up horse, etc.'
CAD CA CAM CAS
9. tsa ne na
force contact remove `strip fish from bone'
M RA RAM
10. to mmu na
out change remove `push over (big rock)
CAD CAS RAM
11. ma tsu a -ggwuni
hand remove activity get-rid-of `wipe away'
I ? RAS
12. wu kwe tso na
rope-or-long-OBJ change-direction squeeze fasten-around `wrap
I CAD CA CAS around'
13. ma we ko nna
hand change-direction twist fasten-around `coiling'
I CAD CA CAS
14. tu a tso na
UNSP from-1-to-another squeeze,close fasten-around `mend'
U CAD CA CAS
15. tu ho na
UNSP dig remove `dig roots'
U CAM RAM
16. tso 'wu pa ga
head into cover-surface change-shape `wrap up head'
O CAD RAS OS
17. tsa 'na -'hoo
hold fasten-around PNT `tangle or intertwine fishline'
CA CAS
18. na - ma yo - tse
PASS scare rise emerge `startle and get up'
P CAM CAD CAM
19. sa na
melt fasten-around `put pitch on water jug'
CA CAS
20. na ba (nobe-ggwi)
RCPR together `two married people stay together'
R CAD
21. na ne ggwe ge a
RCPR speech say give completion `answer'
R I CAS RAS AT
22. ne ma boo ne
speech CAUS heal do `encourage'
I C CA RAS
23. poo nne
see do `see'
RA RAS
24. na tza ku ne -ta
PASS hold grasp contact PL `tie up PL, stitches sewn by doctor'
P CA CAM RA
25. tzo nu 'ya
head hit bump `bump head'
O CA RA
26. nu nu se ba
INST self make-flat cover-surface `shave'
I O CAS RAS
27. pa nnu na -du
water self stick-out er `lake'
I O CAM
28. nu ga
stand go `dance'
CAM RA
29. nu mme
stand go `go, walk'
CAM RA
30. nu boo -du
person heal er `healer, Indian doctor'
O CA
31. ta kwu nu ke
into slip stand get-rid-of `do ironing'
CAD CA CAM RAS
32. nu ba hoo -noo
stand cover-surface flow INST `skis, sleigh'
CAM RAS OS
33. no tsa
carry kill `big load on back'
CAS RA
34. no ggwe ta
eggs come-down cover `spawn'
I RAD RAS
35. no yoo 'a
move jerky activity `snake crawls'
CAS RAM RAS
36. no wu 'a
carry move activity `moving someplace'
CAS RA RAS
37. nuu tu no 'e
self excess roll,bend to-completion `dog shaking off water'
O ADV CAM AT
38. pe bbe noo yoo a
RDP back move repeat activity `step back a couple steps'
OD CAS RAM RAS
39. to ha
black come-out `white'
ADJ RAD
40. tse poo noo e
stick twist spin to-goal `make fire with stick'
I CA CAM AT
41. ma boo noo e
hand twist spin to-goal `make fire with stick'
I CA CAM AT
42. tse nnoo yoo e
stick move jerky to-goal `push with end of stick'
I CAS RAM AT
43. pa hmoo e
volume twist REAL `smoke'
Q ? RAS
44. tsa kwe noo e
fingers change-direction roll to-goal `wind clock with arm motion'
I CAD CAM AT
45. tsa poo noo e
fingers twist roll to-goal `wind clock with fingers'
I CA CAM AT
46. moo noo yoo e
nose move jerky to-goal `hog pushs trough with nose'
I CAS RAM AT
47. ta ko nno noo e -noo
foot round spin move REAL INST `bicycle'
I CA CAM CAS RAS
48. ma pa tse 'e
hand slap hitting-noise to-completion `slap'
I CA RA AT
49. tse tu ma
point completely cover `plug a hole'
I ADV AT
50. to tu ma
hole completely cover `plug a hole'
O ADV AT
51. tu mma tza e -nna
UNSP CAUS remove REAL NR `sail'
U C CA RAS
52. ka ma
eat taste `taste'
CA RA
53. a du ma
someone small taste `ask someone to taste it'
O ADJ RA
54. pe ta sa 'a ma
hip leg spread OBJ close `bow-legged'
L I RAM OS AT
55. yu mma
move touch,feel `itch'
CA CAM
56. ma mma
hand touch `touch with hand'
I CAM
57. ta mma
foot touch `touch with foot'
I CAM
58. pe wu
initiate move `battery'
C RA
59. o he bbu wu ma -'hoo
from-body come-out cause-to-happen into feel PNT
L RA OS CAD CAM
-------cold----------------------- --become-sick--- `catch cold'
60. ma da tse
hand into hitting-noise `clapping hands'
I CAD RA
61. tsa be
hold horizontal-force `stick'
CA RAM
62. na na ma tsa pe
PASS RCPR CAUS hold horizontal-force `a bunch of things
P R C CA RAM stick together'
63. ma wo 'yoo e
CAUS make-line repeat to-completion `lining up books, etc.'
C CA RAM AT
64. na ma 'e
RCPR CAUS maim `fight, hurt'
R C RA
65. tu mma tza 'e
UNSP CAUS hold REAL `help'
U C CA RAS
66. na gu mma
PASS different taste `find something in food, like rocks in
P ADJ RA beans'
67. tse mma
stick touch `poking'
I CAM
68. ma tso pa
hand push cover-surface `to cause to sink by hand'
I CA RAS
69. hu ggwa
blow spread-around `wind, blow'
I CA
70. ma wo 'nge -wunu
hand line contact ing `rub (dog, horse) with hand'
I CA RAS
71. tsa ma 'wu
force CAUS move `release'
M C RA
72. pe pe a -'hoo
good come-apart activity PNT `select'
ADJ CAD RAS
73. ke mma
to go `come (1PL)'
CA RA
74. ma ddu ma
CAUS completely cover `lid'
C ADV AT
75. tu be a
dirt,earth horizontal-motion activity `scatter (dirt)'
O RAM RAS
76. ma do tso ga
make fist back&forth go `wave fist'
M I RAD RA
77. ma tso ga
hand squeeze change-shape `shut hand'
O CA OS
78. ma tse nnga
hand poke move `move hand'
I CAM RAS
79. wu ma ze a
edge squeeze spread activity `spread butter on bread'
I CA RA RAS
80. tu mma 'a ggwe-'hoo
UNSP hand go-from-one-to-another hit PNT `hit with fist'
U I CAD CAS
81. ta mma 'a na -ggwuni
foot CAUS come-out remove get-rid-of `push off with the foot'
I C CAD RAM
82. ma ba e
hand call REAL `motion with the hand to come over'
I ? RAS
83. ma doo bu 'na
hand separate work-on-surface fasten around `make snowball or
I CA CAM CAS anything in hand'
84. no 'ho
anything dig `bake'
Q CAM
85. tso ho
press go-smoothly `grind'
CA OS
86. ma goo dda 'ne-ggute
hand dust raise pile CAUS `make pile of dirt with hand'
I O CAS RA
87. ma ggwu kwa te -'hoo
hand slip remove shoot-out PNT `dumped with hand'
I CA RAM RAS
88. ma ka nge
hand sound make-contact `make sound with hand'
I CAS RAS
89. pa ko ma e
water face point REAL `splash water on face'
I O RA RAS
90. we ke a
opposite-direction come activity `meet on road'
CAD CA RAS
91. he mme
something transfer `give (PL)'
O RA
92. to mu tza
hard-thing turn-over kill `knead bread'
I CAS RA
93. pe wu
active move `heart'
CA RA
94. nu mu
me alike `people, Indian'
U RAS
95. po da
thru-hole break `pound acorns'
CA RA
96. moo tsa kwa 'a
face hold cry activity `looking grouchy, grumpy, sad'
I CA CAM RAS
97. ta se 'wa
push-thru flatten remove `crack pinenuts'
CA CAS RAM
98. moo tso ga 'ne
face-features press-down change-shape release-contact `blink (both
O CA OS AT eyes'
99. moo tso ga
face-features press-down change-shape `close eyes'
O CA OS
100. moo pa 'a
face-features break activity `break with lips'
I RA RAS
101. pa moo se a
water shoot spread activity `spray with water'
I CA RA RAS
102. moo he
lead interact `lead'
CA RA
103. ta pa tse 'e -numme
foot hit emerge REAL go `step in puddle and make splash'
I CA CAM RAS
104. to pa tse 'e
fist hit hitting-noise REAL `hit with fist'
I CA RA RAS
105. pa no -'o
water carry HAB `carry water'
O CAS
106. wu pa sa -'hoo
wind water scatter PNT `wind drying it out'
I O RAM
107. ta ko ba -'hoo
foot break destroy PNT `break by stepping on'
I CA RA
108. pe da
initiate heat `build fire'
C CA
109. tsa ko pa
force break destroy `break off a piece'
M CA RA
110. tsa doo ba
fingers thru pick-up `pull out weeds'
I OD RAM
111. tse tsa ddu pa
stick hold remove pick-up `remove roasted food from ashes'
I CA CAS RAM
112. tse doo pa
stick through pick-up `dig with a digging stick'
I OD RAM
113. kwe ba
hit destroy `hit'
CAS RA
114. kwe ba
come-down cover-surface `fall'
RAD RAS
115. pe pa ko 'a
hip big curve OBJ `make pants baggy'
L ADJ CA OS
116. ma ba ya 'e
make water wear-out REAL `get someone drunk'
M O CAS RAS
117. na te
fasten-around hold-up `belt'
CAS RA
118. pa yu tse nnga
water move emerge move `move water'
O CA CAM RAS
119. na ta tse tse -noo pu ma
PASS into emerge hitting-noise INST it with
P CAD CAM RA U
tu na tu bo
UNSP PASS self write
U P O RA
`typewriter'
120. pa to ggwa ka
water punch go-thru change-shape `flood, break dam'
I CAM RAD OS
121. tu ba doo e
UNSP water separate REAL `irrigate'
U O CA RAS
122. pa ta bu 'a
water appear thru OBJ `can see to bottom of water'
O CA RAS OS
123. pa boo 'a
water cover OBJ `root under water'
I CAS OS
124. bba we
fluid remove `vein'
O RAD
125. pa ha be
water be horizontal `swim'
L CAM RAM
126. tsa pe soo 'e
force shake get-rid to-completion `dirt shaken out'
M CA CAS AT
127. be wu nnga
split,come-apart slip move `split willows'
CAD CA RAS
128. pe tse
drink emerge `suck'
CA CAM
129. pe ggwe -du
hip come-out er `bee stinger'
I RAD
130. ta be
away horizontal `throw, pitch'
RAD RAM
131. tse be
emerge horizontal `pluck chicken'
CAM RAM
132. too bbe a
scatter horizontal-motion activity `scatter'
CA RAM RAS
133. tsa tse be
force emerge horizontal-motion `pull out, take out'
M CAM RAM
134. no be a
carry horizontal-motion OBJ `cargo, wrap, load up truck, roll up
CAS RAM OS blanket'
135. be sa
good separate `good'
ADJ RAM
136. puu ha
blood come-out `to bleed'
I RAD
137. pu sa 'e
fur spread REAL `shaggy'
I RAM RAS
138. puu dda 'e
blood wear-out REAL `thirsty'
I CAS RAS
139. ha ba
come-out cover-surface `cast shadow'
RAD RAS
140. na tsa ke bu e
PASS hold open-up cause-to-happen to-completion `tear'
P CA RA OS AT
142. na da ke bu e
PASS punch-thru open-up happen to-completion `holes appear'
P CA RA OS AT
143. tse po sa
point go-thru-hole insert `thread needle, put stick through
I CA CAM hole'
144. (sagwa'ne) tse bo ka
thrust cut change shape `trim'
CAM RA OS
145. poo tsa e
eye hold REAL `someone comes to you following your light'
I CA RAS
146. wu poo ha
wind cover come-out `clean pinenuts'
I CAS RAD
147. wu poo he
wind cover come-out-from `clean pinenuts'
I CAS RA
148. poo ha
heal do `power'
CA CAM
149. tu boo -'oo
UNSP recover HAB `recover something from the dump'
U CA
150. poo tse 'e
eye poke to-completion `blind person'
O CAM AT
151. na boo
PASS heal `to heal'
P CA
153. pa tsa na bbu
water hold remove go-across `driftwood piled up'
I CA RAM RAS
154. tu tsa 'ma wu a
UNSP hand CAUS move-to activity `to rake'
U I C RA RAS
155. tsa dda ga -ggu
hand say sound CAUS `ring big bell'
I CA CAS
156. wu tza ga -'hoo
stick destroy change-shape PNT `kill with bat'
I RA OS
157. wu tsa e -ggu ga'a
wind remove REAL CAUS go `tumbleweed rolling'
I CA RAS
158. tsa ggwe -ggu
hold come-down CAUS `weigh'
CA RAD
or force come-down CAUS `take picture down'
M RAD
159. na tza 'wu nnga-du
PASS hand up&down move er `old hand water pump'
P I RAD RAS
160. pa tsa
hit kill `kill(1)'
CA RA
161. na na 'a ggwe
RCPR opposite-group come-out hit `when war was going on'
R OD CAD CAS
162. ta tza
heat kill `summer'
CA RA
163. to tsa nge -ta
up hold contact PL `to hang up hides'
CAD CA RAS
164. (gi) to tsa-du
black kill er `pure, clean'
ADJ RA
165. tsa 'a -bu
killed OBJ PAST `ghost, evil spirit'
RA OS
166. tsa gwu -du
claw into er `porcupine'
I CAD
167. pa da tso ggwa pu
water into press go-thru cause-to-happen `waterlogged'
I CAD CA RAD OS
168. tsa nnge -'hoo
hold interract,cross PNT `tangle'
CA RAS
169. tse ta ke
point punch-into get-rid-of `punch holes'
I CA RAS
170. na go ba tse 'e
PASS noisy slap hitting-noise REAL `hit making popping noise'
P ADJ CA RA RAS
171. wu tse ge
stick poke get-rid-of `chipping a board with knife, ax, etc.'
I CAM RAS
172. ta pa tse 'e
foot hit hitting-noise REAL `tapping in tune'
I CA RA RAS
173. yo tze
rise emerge `fly'
CAD CAM
174. tu ma be na e na
UNSP CAUS split grow go-thru remove `collect money'
U C CAD CAS RAD RAM
175. huu tse
breeze emerge `spittle'
I CAM
176. tse ge sa
point go-toward insert `sword'
I CA CAM
177. tu u ddso tso ke
ground beneath-surface push-down back&forth open-up `plow'
O OD CA RAD RA
178. o e ddu -ggute
it in believe CAUS `believe'
U CAD CA
179. a tsa
something killed `red'
O RA
180. pa tso -nna
water press NR `well, waterhole'
O CA
181. pa tso -'o
water press HAB `well, waterhole'
O CA
182. tso ba
squeeze lift `pick up'
CA RAM
183. tu ta ka 'a -noo
UNSP into cut activity INST `chisel'
U CAD CA RAS
184. wu dda ga -ggu
stick say sound CAUS `ring small bell'
I CA CAS
185. na boo
PASS cover `prickly pear cactus'
P CAS
186. ta kwu da e -'hoo
foot slip divide,break-off REAL PNT `slip'
I CA RA RAS
187. ta sa 'a -katu
leg spread activity sit `sitting with legs spread apart'
I RAM RAS
188. tu wo bbe
UNSP head come-apart `scalp'
U O CAD
189. tu wo ka
UNSP head cut `get scalp'
U O CA
190. to dda ga -ggute
stick say sound CAUS `play (marimba etc.) with sticks'
I CA CAS
191. ta ddoo 'e
foot warm REAL `warming 1 or both feet'
O CA RAS
192. ta ka nge
foot sound interract `make noise with foot'
I CAS RAS
193. tu kwa te
UNSP remove shoot-out `dump or pour something'
U RAM RAS
194. ta ggwu kwa te -'hoo
foot slip remove shoot-out PNT `spilled it with foot'
I CA RAM RAS
195. tu ggwu ka 'a -wunu
UNSP toward-you cut activity ing `cutting with scythe
U CAD CA RAS toward you'
196. tu koo
UNSP bury `bury'
U CA
197. to tsa e
up&out hold REAL `push door to keep someone from coming thru'
CAD CA RAS
198. pe so ne
hip pulp release `diaper'
L O AT
199. tu do tsa nga
UNSP up hold move `hang up'
U CAD CA RAS
200. koo too se bu
fire separate flatten cause-to-happen `ashes'
I CA CAS OS
201. ka we
neck come-out `skin over throat'
I RAD
202. too he
separate go-out,attack `spit'
CA RA
203. kaa ke a
neck give OBJ `necklace'
O RAS OS
204. wu ka nge
stick sound contact `make noise with stick (drum)'
I CAS RAS
205. ku ka 'a
teeth cut activity `bite with mouth'
I CA RAS
206. ko so gwa 'e
noisy breath go-thru to-goal `whistle'
ADJ CAM RAD AT
207. koo sa
above separate `pants'
CAD RAM
208. kwa be
2 horizontal-position `2 lie'
Q RAM
209. ggwu 'e
slip thru `be born'
CA RAD
210. yaa 'wa ka
wear-out remove change-shape `dip'
CAS RAM OS
211. ya ya 'wa ka
RDP wear-out remove change-shape `dips'
CAS RAM OS
212. tu bboo 'ya -kena
UNSP back&forth push go `climb up(with switchbacks)'
U CAD RA
213. tu boo soo nga
UNSP see again restore `sight restored'
U RA RAS AT
214. yoo nga
jerk move `scoop fish'
RAM RAS
215. poo he 'yoo
mouth-breath contact jerky `blow'
CA RA RAM
217. tsa 'wo se ga
claw line make-flat change-shape `to scratch'
I CA CAS OS
218. yoo hoo
warm make-layer `fat'
CA CAM
219. hooo bba
layer-of-body break-off `shed hair, skin'
CAM RA
220. sa e ya
insert thru push `sift flour'
CAM RAD RA
221. ya sa
bump separate `thrash'
RA RAM
222. kwe se
change-directions spread `weave'
CAD RA
223. too hoo
black layer,covered `black'
ADJ CAM
224. poo he
cover physical-sensation `blue' (look of sky)
CAS RA
225. e se
strip flat `grey' (color of sword)
Q CAS
226. koo pe he
heat sweet sensation `something that rotted in sun'
I ADJ RA
227. pa tse he
water emerge sensation `glass'
L CAM RA
228. to ka
black,dark have `dark, purple'
ADJ CAD
229. ggwe dda -du
different-direction appear er `color' (the way it appears
CAD CA coming at you)
230. pa ba
big cover-surface `big' (cover a big surface)
ADJ RAS
231. tuu tse
small really `small'
ADJ ADV
232. tu ge
UNSP thin `skinny'
U Q
233. yu ba -no
come-down cover-surface for-time-period `autumn' (leaves move to
RA RAS cover ground)
234. yo ngo
warm descend `evening'
CA RAS
235. ka too bbe a
break-up all-over horizontal activity `scatter'
CA RAD RAM RAS
236. to su ggu
hard-OBJ spread-out support `hoof'
I CA RA
237. ggu ggu
grasp support `foot'
CAM RA
238. tu gu
raise-up support `put down'
CAM RA
239. ko pe 'e -'hoo
noisy come-apart to-completion PNT `break a board and it
ADJ CAD AT makes a breaking sound'
241. po do
thru-hole grind `digging stick'
CA CAM
242. ma na moo a
CAUS surround cover OBJ `cover'
C CAS ? OS
243. tu bbo ge
dirt cut get-rid-of `cave'
O RA RAS
244. kwa na
recognize surround `smell'
CAM CAS
245. na be a tse
PASS initiate object DIM `first kill'
P C OS AT
246. na tze to -'o
PASS poke lift HAB `walking stick'
P CAM RA
247. tze to 'a
point lift object `pry up rock with a stick'
I RA OS
248. tu bba
mouth cover-surface `mouth'
I RAS
249. yo zu
rise spread-out `fly(PL)'
CAD CA
250. ka wo wo -'o
neck come-against make-noise HAB `bell on neck'
O CAD CA
251. no be
rounded live-in `house'
CAM OS
252. to pe (long o)
hole live-in `hole that an animal lives in'
O OS
253. wo go bbe
near-top curved live-in `bull pine'
L CA OS
254. sa e be
wet edge live-in `tule'
ADJ CAD OS
255. tu ba be
UNSP high live-in `pinenut tree'
U ADJ OS
256. no dda be
rounded raised lie `boil'
CAM CAS OS
257. su nnga be
edge move live-in `cottonwood' (lives near edge of river)
CAD RAS OS
258. yu pe
push-down lie `valley'
RA OS
259. ta su su nge
foot edge numb interract `foot goes asleep' (goes asleep
I CAD RA RAS when something comes in contact with
it, cutting circulation)
260. ma no -'yoo
hand all `ten'
I Q
261. ka mmu
eat kind `jackrabbit'
CA RAS
262. wa nna
spread-out fasten-around `net, trap'
CA CAS
263. u we
sleep restore `sleep'
CA RA
264. ma go -'o
CAUS curve HAB `bag'
C CA
265. mu ha
change come-out `moon'
CAS RAD
266. pa be -'e
big live-at HAB `big brother'
ADJ OS
267. wa nnga -'a
cry make-noise HAB `little brother'
CAM RA
268. o ha 'a
inside-body come-out OBJ `baby'
L RAD OS
269. wa nnge -'e
cry go-out HAB `fox'
CAM RAS
270. tu do he we -noo
UNSP up&out loosen come-out INST `crowbar'
U CAD CA RAD
271. tee pu
hold-up cause-to-happen `earth'
RA OS
272. pu hu
skin cause-movement `duck' (skin causes water to slide off)
I RAM
273. we ho
come-down go-smoothly `buzzard'
RAD OS
274. wa ha
two be `two'
Q CAM
275. na ne a
PASS say OBJ `name'
P ? OS
276. he be
something drink `drink'
O CA
277. so na 'a
pulp stick-out activity `make bed'
O CAM RAS
278. tu u kwe he
mouth from-person tell interract `tell'
I OD CAS RA
279. to bo ngo
all-around cut come-down `Shoshoni' (follow game all over
RAD RA RAS in order to shoot down)
280. wo po nga
head cut move `mosquito' (cuts you with his head to move
I RA RAS blood out)
281. moo be
facial-feature horizontal `nose' (part of face that sticks
I RAM out horizontally)
282. moo ho -'oo
nose go-down HAB `owl'
I CAM
283. koo hoo -'oo
bury go-down HAB `burrowing owl'
CA CAM
284. kwe na 'a
come-down remove OBJ `eagle' (swoops down to grab prey)
RAD RAM OS
285. paa no sa
water carry separate `pelican' (carry water picked up when
O CAS RAM grabbing fish)
286. pe poo ze
hip come-out spread `stinkbug'
I CAS RA
287. ka ggwe too hoo -'oo
mountain come-down under go-smoothly HAB
L RAD OD OS `mountain lion'
--bobcat----------
288. e sa
big bark `wolf' (big barker)
ADJ CA
289. su ma te a
one on exalt OBJ `God, Great Spirit' (the only one who is exalted)
Q OD RA OS (This is a word used by Indian doctors. It
is typical of words which many people did not understand. Therefore
the Indian doctors had interpreters. It appears that the Indian
doctors both had greater control over the system and that some
morphemes such as te had more figurative meanings than normal.)
290. hoo e -du
dig to-completion er `ant'
CAM AT
291. na ka 'e
stick-out sound to-completion `hawk' (listens for prey)
CAM CAS AT
292. soo gwa e
want(mental) look-for REAL `want(mentally)'
W RAM RAS
293. ne gwa e
want(by-speech) look-for REAL `want by speech'
W RAM RAS
294. wa te
look-for go-out `look for'
RAM RAS
295. pa be ddse
liquid drink emerge `weasel' (drinks blood of prey)
O CA CAM
296. pa ggwe
water wiggle `fish'
L CAM
297. na ka
PASS dispose-of `leaf of tree' (dumped off in fall)
P ?
298. go so
fire consume `fire'
I CAS
299. soo 'a
consume complete `consume'
CAS AT
300. to -'o
all-around HAB `grazing'
RAD
301. ma hu
scare cause-movement `drive cattle or chickens, scaring them'
CAM RAM
302. ta ma hu
foot CAUS cause-movement `drive car'
I C RAM
303. na gwe
fasten-around come-down `dress'
CAS RAD
304. naa tse -'e
male DIM HAB `boy'
ADJ AT
305. ha nga nga e
make make-noise move to-completion `bear growls' (make noise by
CAM RA RAS AT pushing air through nose)
306. e go
strip slide `tongue'
Q RA
307. e na
strip remove `strip meat into jerky'
Q RAM
308. na ma soo bbe da ggwa too
PASS make mind initiate appear recognize make `learning'
P M I C CA CAM RA
309. pa ha be
water be lie `slough'
I CAM OS
310. pa mo go
water nose dig `frog' (goes under the mud with his nose)
L I CA
311. wo nga (long o)
make-lines move `lines or stripes'
CA RAS
312. poo nga tse
mouth-air move DIM `mouse' (makes squeeking noise)
CA RAS AT
313. ta boo -'oo
feet come-out HAB `cottontail' (force of legs sends back
I CAS dust, etc.)
315. pa hwa
water look-through `bear' (when he is fishing)
O RAD
316. ke -du
come-to er `groundhog' (the hunted one)
CA
317. wo he -du
make-noise attack er `swan' (hollerer)
CA RA
318. wa we
through-time-period restore `heal up'
ADV RA
319. pa 'we to go
water change-direction all-around slide `tadpole'
L CAD RAD RA
320. ku e pu
teeth through cause-to-happen `bite' (rattlesnake etc.)
I RAD OS
321. wa ha bu
spread-around come-out cause-to-happen `hay'
CA RAD OS
322. e wa
many spread-around `many'
ADJ CA
323. wa me
2 stand `2 stand'
Q CA
324. koo mme bu
above be-contained-in-volume go-across `cloud'
CAD CA RAS
325. sa me
wet contained-in-volume `wet'
ADJ CA
326. tu ma sa mme
ground CAUS wet stand `irrigate'
O C ADJ CA
327. mee tse
stand DIM `short'
CA AT
328. ma e tza da 'me
hand edge hold away be-active `shake hands'
I CAD CA RAD RA
329. pu gwa 'ne
it recognize be-in-state `to know'
U CAM RAS
330. na ma na soo ggwa e -du
PASS make RCPR cause-mentally cry REAL er `ashamed of someone'
P M R C CAM RAS
331. o a 'e
from-body come-out thru `vomit'
L CAD RAD
332. da ka
go-into cut `arrowhead'
CAD CA
333. o to
from-body go-all-around `bleeding'
L RAD
334. na ne ggwa ha
PASS speak cry come-out `testimony, confession'
P I CAM RAD
335. wa sa
far spread `sandy hill crane' (long flapping wings)
? RAM
336. pa mo to -'o
wet nose grind HAB `field mouse' (makes holes in wet ground
L I CAM with nose)
337. too soo
grind into-pulp `grind'
CAM CAS
338. moo soo e
face make-pulp go-thru `beard'
I CAS RAD
339. so nga ha
breath move repetitive `breathe'
CAM RAS OS
340. so nga pa nga
breath move REAL rest `rest'
CAM RAS OS AT
341. pu doo so nga ha
skin thru get-rid-of move repeat `pores'
I OD CAS RAS OS
342. kwa se
go-thru spread-around `tail'
RAD RA
343. tu ka
mouth gnaw `eat'
I CA
344. tu bbe
dirt located-in `rock'
L OS
345. to go ggwa
all-over slide look-for `rattlesnake' (slides all over
RAD RA RAM looking for food)
346. pa ne to go ggwa
water cover all-around slide look-for `Walker Lake Serpent'
L OD RAD RA RAM
347. to mmo
dark leading `winter'
ADJ CA
348. ma da be
hand into drink `woodtick' (digs into the hand to drink blood)
O CAD CA
349. ta be -no
light horizontal-motion through-time-period `day'
CA RAM
350. tu mu
possession change `buy'
CA CAS
351. tu du ha
possession remove come-out `steal'
CA CAS RAD
352. na ma du ku
PASS CAUS have grasp `keep, put away for future use'
P C CA CAM
353. tu tu ha
really believe do `pity'
ADV CA CAM
354. u nne
from-person say `say'
OD ?
355. u na ggwe
from-person accompany say `say'
OD CA RA
356. na ggwa e
accompany be-in REAL `to follow along'
CA RAD RAS
357. ma na soo ggwa 'e
CAUS be-visible humiliate remove to-completion `embarrass, humiliate'
C CAM CAS RAM AT
358. ma na goo ma
CAUS break-off break come-against `attack'
C OD CA RA
359. na na ha
RCPR opposition come-out `argue (PL)'
R O D RAD
360. ma ddu 'na
hand excess remove `have too much and its falling out of hand'
L ADV RAM
361. ka u ze -'e
eat finish-use spread-around HAB `pig'
CA CAM RA
362. na 'e
remove REAL `burn'
RAM RAS
363. ma nna noo e
CAUS break-away-from roll to-completion `roll a ball'
C OD CAM AT
364. wu na tzo
edge break-away push `to brush'
I OD CA
365. na ma soo a -pu
PASS CAUS pile-up activity PAST `carrying everything'
P C RA RAS
366. na na soo ggwe soo
PASS out-to-another-bunch get-rid-of come-down pile-up `sort, move to
P OD CAS RAD RA different piles'
367. wu ko pu -wunu
go-into break go-across ing `cross field, stream'
CAD CA RAS
368. ta bu a
light on-surface on-OBJ `appear'
CA CAM OS
369. tu o e -yae
UNSP inside-body maim sick `sick'
U L RA
370. wu ta tse 'e bbu
long-objects push-through stab maim cause-to-happen `battle'
I CA CAM RA OS
371. (paa'a puggwi) na tza da ggwu pu
PASS hand lift move cause-to-happen `bucket with
P I CAS RA OS handle'
372. ma to go
hand stubby-OBJ broken-off `thumb'
L O CA
373. ta to go
foot stubby-OBJ broken-off `big toe'
L O CA
374. o ha
brown come-out (complete action) `yellow'
ADJ RAD
375. o a
brown come-out (incomplete action) `orange'
ADJ CAD
376. o tu
brown have `brown, sorrel color'
ADJ CA
377. su go go e
edge break slide REAL `slide, avalanche'
CAD CA RA RAS
378. e ggwu
much carry `squirrel'
ADJ RA
379. wo da 'a
make-line cover OBJ `chipmunk'
CA RAS OS
380. ta bba
divide cover-surface `chipmunk' (woda'a is a small chipmunk with
RA RAS lines covering his back, tabba is a larger
chipmunk with stripes only on his sides).
381. e sa
maim spread-around `lie'
RA RAM
382. ma to
hand all-around `crawl'
I RAD
383. tu u ggwa
ground next-to-surface spread-around `snowing'
O OD CA
384. se ge ta dda -du
flat thin into break er `flat'
ADJ Q CAD RA
385. po ze da be
road flat break-in habitat `clover, alfalfa'
L ADJ RA OS
386. poo ha bu
protection remove cause-to-happen `witchdoctor'
CAS RAD OS
387. u mu
you alike `you all, them'
U RAS
388. a bbe gga
bunch buzz sound `talk(PL)'
Q OD CAS
389. a a ta 'a
bunch inside raise activity `sit(PL)'
Q OD CAS RAS
390. nu mme ga ddu
I &others have have `we POSS EMPH'(exclusive)
U Q CAD CA
391. ta mme ga ddu
you&me &others have have `we POSS EMPH'(inclusive)
U Q CAD CA
392. ma na-wa'neyoosoo
there RCPR like `they are the same'
U R
393. ta e bo -'o
light go-thru cut-trail HAB `white man' (light ones going
CA RAD RA through cutting trails)
394. ka doo -'oo
have disperse HAB `nothing'
CAD CA
395. na a moo
RCPR inside middle `middle'
R OD ?
396. no mo
carry middle `divide two ways'
CAS ?
397. soo be moo 'a
mind good sense activity
I ADJ CAS RAS
398. tooo moo we ma
stoop see come-down point `stoop over and peek'
? CAS RAD RA
399. moo we ma
see come-out point `sneak look back'
CAS RAD RA
400. sa e pu
heat go-through change `melt'
CA RAD RAS
401. ne zoo
cover-with consume `mormon cricket'
OD CAS
402. to mmu a -ggute
dark change activity `make storm'
ADJ CAS RAS
403. hoo be a
smooth buzz activity `sing'
ADV CA RAS
404. pe moo moo 'e
buzz move sense REAL `buzzing of bees, vacuum cleaner'
CA CAM CAS RAS
405. poo ggwa
back&forth spread-around `lie down (PL)'
CAD CA
406. tsa to to bu e
force up&out push-hard go-across to-goal `stretch string'
M CAD CAM RAS AT
407. a ba e ka
something destroy REAL change-shape `fall over'
O RA RAS OS
408. ta ma
into taste `tooth'
CAD RA
409. ko e pa
face strip hit `mountain sheep'
I Q CA

XII. BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Liljeblad, Sven. 1971. A Primitive Language? in Charlton Laird and Robert M Gorrell(eds.), Reading about Language, p67-76. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Nichols, Mike. 1974. Northern Paiute Historical Grammar. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley.

Poldervaart, Arie. 1981. Northern Paiute Verbs. Informal Notes.

 

XIII. CONCLUSION

 

This paper only identifies a fraction of the morphemes in the language. It does however identify the slots used by Northern Paiute speakers at the time of white contact. A degree of complexity has been discovered which has rarely been suspected for any language in the world. It is felt that the word generating system shown here will occur throughout the Uto-Aztecan language family. If this analysis is done for related languages, many of the unsolved problems in Northern Paiute are expected to become clear also.